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Preface •> 

The Manuscripts I 3 


Introduction 24 

Chap. I. The letters of the alphabet 25 

Chap. II. Letters in motion and at rest .... 27 

Chap. III. Radical and servile letters 28 

Chap. IV. On the letters which are called case-letters 30 

Chap. V. On Rukkaha and Kussaya 33 

Chap. VI. Rukkaha and KuSsaya with pe 36 

Chap. VII. On the letters which are absorbed. . 37 

Chap. VIII. On the letters which are assimilated 38 

Chap. IX. On the letters which interchange with each other . . 40 

Chap. X. On the S e yame points 41 

Chap. XI. On the pronounciation of the Syriac letters 44 

Chap. XII. On the general points of punctuation 44 

Chap. XIII. List of nouns, together with the inflection of verbs . . 46 

Notes . ^ 1*— 60* 

Appendix 61 — 67* 

Additions and Corrections . " 68* — 71* 

Syriac Text .V— r< 


Some time ago Professor Sachau drew my attention to certain 
parts of the K e t h ab h a d be semhe of Bar 'Eb h raya. After a careful 
study of that work, and after having gained a better insight into 
the manner, in which the author had composed his many other 
writings, I found it necessary, to search for all possible sources, 
from which the celebrated MapVyan might have drawn his know- 
ledge. I felt certain, that, had any important grammatical trea- 
tises been brought to light before his time, he surely, to judge from 
his other works, would have made good use of them. 

For a native Syrian Grammarian, there are three sources, 
from which he may gather his information: from the works of his 
own native grammarians ; from those of his Arabic teachers ; and, 
indirectly from the iix^ T t °f *^ e Greeks. a) It was especially the first 
of these sources, which interested me in regard to Bar 'Eb h raya. 
To the end of being better informed on that point, I read and 
copied as many of the native Syrian Grammarians, as were to he 
found in the collections here. That of Professor Sachau— now the 
property of the Royal Library in Berlin — together with two Mss. 
from the Petermann collection, gave me all the material I needed. 
Very soon my attention was particularly drawn to two of the 
smaller grammatical compendia; very different from each other in 
the subject matter, but as similar in the brevity, and clearness, 

a) ZDMG. xxvi, p. 822. In what way these three can he combined (?), one 
can best see in the turas, mam(l)la of Elia of Tirhan, ed. Baethgen, Leipzig 1880. 


of their diction: the one — which I here publish — th« turas 
mam(l)la of Elia of S6b h a a) (Nisibis), the other the nisa d he gram- 
matikut b a (xe/VY] Ypa r t l JWXtlx "')) of Jausep h Huzaya. b) As Jausep h 
Huzaya flourished about the year 580— a hundred years before 
Ja f kob h of Edessa, and nearly 300 before Honain bar Ishak, I 
eagerly went to work, at what, I believed, would bring us one 
point further in understanding the relationship, in which the first 
Syrian Grammarians stood to their Greek teachers. c) My hopes 
were realized J but in a manner different to. what I had expected. 
The nisa d he grammatikut h a turned out to be the xeprj ypaftfjta- 
xixrj — the celebrated compendium of Dionysius Thrax. d) As I after- 
wards learned, Prof. Merx, who had discovered the same transla- 
tion in two Mss. in the British Museum, e) had promised an edition 
of the same/* I yielded to his prior rights. In the notes, however, 
I have cited several passages; partly, because we there reach the 

a) f after 1049. SeeEosen and Forshall: Gat. cod. map. orient, gui in Museo 
Brittanico asservantur. 1838, p. 89. Steinschneider: Polemische und apolo- 
getische Literatur etc. 1877, p. 51. B. 0. iii, 266. 

b) B. O. iii, p. 257, note 2. Bar *Eb h raya. Chron. ecol. ii, p. 78: iAuao 
fjxL ^iT*gi» ^au^i.i >la&fl0r£s ^ajo.r i&xs tJ»ii &u=a A>\ a 

,?y\ U,r„ OCV3CI .CTJ.TjJSlA^ KlitOCO &SSOGU '. ^*3U.. 1 -i Cp&l&O.I 

See B. O. iv, p. ecclxxix. Wright, Catalogue &c. 1026. 107. Payne Smith, Cata- 
logue p. 604. Ms. Sachau 306. fols. 18 a. 32 e. 

c) ZDMG. xxxii, p. 502. Steinthal, p. 25. 

d) I have used the excellent edition of Uhlig, Leipzig 1883. The Syriac 
translation has there already been used in the text-criticism. See Uhlig: - "Zur 
•Wiederherstellung des altesten occidehtalischen Compendiums der Grammatik'* 
Festschrift zur Begriiss. d. xxxvi. Philologenversammlung in Karlsruhe, p. 61 ff, 

e) Mss. add. 14658, 14620. 

f) See "Appendix artis Dionysii Thracis ab. G. Uhlig recensLtae n in Programm 
des Gymnasium zu Heidelberg, 1880-—81, p. I note. 


last authority and starting-point for rules which the later gram- 
marians propound, and partly to give some idea of this interesting 

The reasons which induce me now to edit the other of the 
two works are; a) Elia wrote his grammar about the same time 
as his namesake, Elia of Tirhan; if the supposition in note 102 be 
right, still earlier. Whether this is so or not, Elia of Sob b a stands, 
as regards form and subject matter, much nearer Ja c kob h , than 
does Elia of Tirhan. b) His style is clear and concise; the rules 
are given in a dry— at times monotonous — manner, but, also, 
without ever attempting to force the Syriac into grammatical 
forms to which it is quite strange. In both of these, he is the 
direct opposite of Elia of Tirhan; who, however, for his part, as 
regards independence of judgement, stands far above Elia of Nisi- 
bis. c) As representative of the school of S6b b a, and as starting- 
point for a number of later grammarians, he claims our full 
interest. To this last point I have paid particular attention in the 
notes, even at the risk of their becoming unnaturally long. 

What position docs Elia occupy in the history of the native 
Syrian GrammarianB ? Looking backwards, we have to enquire, 
in what relation does he stand to his predecessors? Here the answer 
can be very short. Of all who- wrote on grammatical subjects 
before his time-- Jausep 11 Huzaya, Ahud h *'me, Juhanan Estanya, 
Ja'kob h Urhaya, Honain &c. we know next to nothing. Elia, himself 
mentions two authorities: Ja'kob h of Edessa (from the turas 
mam(l)la p. 5, 8, from his letter on Syriac Orthography — although 
not mentioned by name — p. 12, 4) and Honain (K^abH d he nukze 
Chap. V.). I have reason to think that these are not the only 
passages belonging here; pp. 6,4 and 28,14 have undoubted refe- 
rence, the* one to the grammar, the other to the Letter of Ja'kob 1 *.** 

a) Severus of Mar(i) Mattai and Jausep h bar Malkon cite these passage too; 
but, as I believe only at second hand, through Elia. See notes 6, 23. 30.* 81. 


I can not find that the Arabian Grammarians nave bad much in- 
fluence upon Elia: at the most, ©uiy in the two chap tiers, on the 
pronunciation (r<Siasn, r -\* x "i KSIti) of the letters , and in that 
on the letters which interchange with one another. 

If we now, however, ask, what was the fate of Elia's turas 
mam(l)la among his contemporaries and successors, we have to note 
the following: 

Juhanan bar Zabi, a) monk in the monastery of Be(i)t h Koke 
(called that of Sabbariso') in the neighbourhood of Arbe(i)l, pupil 
of Semon Sank°lawi b) composed a work containing grammatical 
and philosophical treatises, addressed to a certain Giwargis. 0) In 
these he has made good use of our Elia. Had we not direct tss& 
mony to hand, the one fact would be convincing,, that in all M&s* 
(sometimes without a heading of its own as in Ms. B.) the works 
of both are invariably faanct together, Elia always stan&ig? first. 
It would seem that Bar Zobi had taken the treatise of Elia up 
bodily, as the first of bis own collection. Fol. 32 a, 80= a he men- 
tions him by name; fol. 15? b/* he refers his readers directly to 
Mar(i) Elia. At other times, he has taken the single rules, as 
worked out by Elia; and, without mentioning any name, enlarged 
themv ai *d multiplied the examples. See. especially notes, 41 and 
9&;in general comp. no$es 47. 82. 86. 88 &cl 

More interesting is* the relation in which Elia stands to 
Severus bar Sakku, e) bishop in the convent of Mar(i) Mattai ia& the 

a) B. O. iii, 307. Bar c Eb b raya. ehron. Eccl. ii, p. 409, see p„ 401. 
To) Wright: Catalogue p. 1067. 

c) Ms. Sachau 306, fol. 75 a, Juhanan bar Zd'bi lived about the year 1200. 

d) See note 50. 

e) B. 0. ii, p. 455. Bar 'Eb h raya, chron. Eccl. ii, 410: r<lJ-S»i f<i«w» 
ctem ><hsa »\znx t^i»<Ud ocuSitrt , r%t\n\ ». rtaso .&»:!*&&» 

.icuAa ifc^ i n^mi^ .oojusn ooa K'iUki*' wd£,h&.& v^Luiaa 


neighbourhood of Niniveh. He studied under Bar Zobi, and 
through him was probably made acquainted with the grammar of 
Elia. From him he has taken whole passages bodily into the 
grammatical parts of his "Dialogues". They follow Elia so closely, 
that I have been able, at times, to make textual use of the same. 
See notes 23. 32. 41. 90. The dialogues are written in a peculiar 
manner. The same subject is treated of twice, sometimes three 
times. It so happens that passages from Elia are found— as dis- 
jecta membra — in different corners of the book. Such passages 
I have generally given in full. See notes 18. 23. 32. 41. 49. 58. 64. 
81. 90. 

The same can be said of Jausep h bar Malkon Bishop of 
Maridin. I have been unable to find any further information 
about his life. a) Assemani, B. 0. iii, 308. Wright, Catalogue p. 1177 
do not mention a single date. I have the impression that, in point 
of time, he comes before the two last mentioned. He, too, has 
taken passages from Elia word for word, changing them only in 
so far, as it was necessary to fit them into his duo decasyllabic 
Metre. See notes 23. 41. 63. 79. 90. In note 48 I have given a 
passage, part of which is found, word for word, in Bar Zo'bi's 
metrical grammar. 

As regards Bar 'Eb h raya, the result is not quite that which 
I had expected. The K e t h ab h a d he semhe stands so high above all 
its predecessors, is so much more worked out, that it is difficult 
to find out its single parts. And yet there is no doubt, that Elia 

KlljJCl Voo J. See Martin: de la Metrique chez les Syriens, Leipzig 1879. 
ZDMG. xxxiv, 509 ff. 

a) Severus fol. 44 b mentions a Bar Malkon: onJkJIt ^CLlr^ » t \coa 


has worked here before him. {Compare the chapter on the letters 
which interchange with one another.) From this point of view I 
have cited Bar 'Eb h raya. It is possible that in one place he has 
EJia in nwod {see npte 44). In general compare notes 7 {== Bar 
Zo'bi) 13. 5P- 5$ &c. &c. CJnriQus is b.ere the part that Severus 
pjays. In note 95 I have .called attention to two chapters in the 
metrical grammar, which have very striking resemblance with a 
passage from Severus there cited. See also note 32. 

Of later Grammarians Amira (Grammatica Syriaca, sive 
.Gbaldaica, Rome 1596) has made use of Elia (see notes 9 and 34) 
and Abraham Ecchelensis (see notes 53 and 54). The last of which 
I am sorry not to have been able to make use of. It does not 
exist in the Berlin Koyal library. 

l^y text is taken chiefly from Ms. Sachau 306. For the intro- 
duction, which I found only partly in one of the Mss. here, I have 
been able, through the kindness of Dr. Peiser, to make use of Ms. 
Brijt. Mus. add. 25876. I have not thought it worth while to give 
a translation of that part of the Grammar which merely enume- 
rates tjie forms. The numbering of the chapters is my own.** 

It is my pleasant duty here, to thank my revered teacher 
Prof. Dr. Sachau for the interest he has shown in my studies, and 

a) In the grammar of Bar Zo'bi there are certain extracts apparently from 
a work of Elia of £|0b h a (fol. 18 b) ndso^.t (sic!) *<&*. »iiq ^a K^.tm 
n tfjft 'i i ft «ft r<A or»A ^ , v\V frisw r<£ji {*x&u .qrais pdiiwreb 
foi. 26 h: rdsax..! K&OL&uaA r4\r? ,\so rdau.-ua y^i i i*^ i^va 

rehear*' RSUinr*' nfS&ti n&suA ^»i ^in^^xsj %snnf. m. 43 a: 

i^sO^il r< * y^i\ QA VNy >*W . I have not thought it necessary to edite them 
here. I doubt whether their author really is our Elia. They follow Dionysius 
very closely. Fol. 66 b is an extract on fCfififfp*? by Dawid h bar Paulos which 
is, word for word, a translation of Dionysius (Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 49 b). 


the helping hand, he has been ever ready to lend me, during my 
stay here in Berlin. Nor can I omit to thank Prof. Dr. Schrader 
and Dr. Steinschneider, for the readiness with which they have 
sought to further my studies. To the Royal Library in Berlin my 
thanks are due for the extreme liberality which its officers have 
shown in allowing the unlimited use of their manuscript treasures. 

Berlin, March 7, 1886. 

R. J. H. G. 


Ms. Sachau 306, on cotton paper, folio, consisting of 127 
leaves. There are, in addition, 5 detached leaves, which I believe 
to have originally belonged to the volume. -The kurras were for- 
merly 14 in number. The numeration of the kurras is with red 
and black ink, at the beginning and end of each kurrasah. The 
division^, even the smallest, are written in red ink. Many leaves 
are much stained through wet — especially the lower part. This 
manuscript is written in a good modern Nestorian hand — mostly 
carefully punctuated — by a Deacon Suhru a) (fol. Ill a) son of the 
deacon Juhanan from (the convent?) of Be(i)t h Gud h u b) , under the 
jurisdiction of Grazart b a ZabMaita (Be(i)t h Zab h de) c) in the neigh r 
bourhood of Mosoul (fol. 124 a); and was finished towards the end 
of Elul on a Thursday morning, in the year cear^r^ A. Gr. = 
1735 A. D. 

The volume contains: 

On the outward page of the first leaf some carelessly written 
Syriac-Carsunic glosses, some of which can with difficulty be read 
y&d\ [rt&\] >aoA\ .^Juift r£*saa&oa .yJ! c&Spa .&JI rftnW 
x+X=Lf r£zu3-iao .*a**cif x<snc\r< .Juiil! rdL}^i. They seem 
to be taken form the ^Ua.-jdf <_jLT of Elia of Nisibis (Mss. 
Sachau 101. 102. 105) 

a) Perhaps = SeoTJpon. Wright, Cat. 80 col. 2 b . 

b) Wright, 1. c. 707 col. 2. 

c ) iS<H)*4 B. O. iii 2 , p. dccxxxiii. Eosen and Forshall p. 60c. 1. Hoffmann: 
Persische Martyrer p. 23. 


I. fol. 1 b — 9 a Grammar of Elia of Sob h a. 
II. fol. 9 a — 11a Grammar of Juhanan bar Zobi: following 
directly upon the preceeding, without any special heading ; 

beginning k'&o&K' A^.i r? &\ \ «*i \ ^\ »ai \ t a rtlx-cno 
KllY&Q&o r<iorAre' ccAxi* A4- .^*cnvo<UO f*ca^A-2kQ 
rcJAsosa.1 r^i&Lso Ai. cua»»*anV ^x.-ui^ 30 .KlLsoaisa 
^oa»jjv»t^ nftaaAi. Subscription ctAxu AjL.1 oco.t r<uatxx. 

Klaxa^iW.i rdxsoirs AdA.K' pai'ojo r6cn rdadiSk £».i 

K'cnlWA'o .r<lLz2a±sa >V»'» aiaoaxa >Hj»c£= v«&i<u\ 

.^sanfo ^►K' rducuc. rCl^oioiAo r<lma;«»ia r€a*ai<xx. 

III. fol. 111b — 118 b. Metrical grammar of Juhanan bar Z6 c bi. 

Beginning: .LLi rfisorclsa ^=>^vk «^» **=» cs*\&\ 

cozaa .uju «*J5a ..iivcn *=» {^9-** 
IV. fol. 118b — 120a. Philosophical explanations; beginning 
^1\v A_* &vAj^ AvAa. b&s*.; under the following 
headings: .»ru\oA Arc'o ,»o*ia3^*io MxiA^aajsai^ 

a) In red ink above the line. 

b) Comp. Ms. 72. 


V. fol. 120 a. On the four chief interpunctuation marks. Fol. 
119 Mar(i) Abba kat h 61ikais mentioned. Subscription JolLx. 

Kfo^jj.i r^lnnttT. Oicnaflo rc^ciAc* .r6ww. cnAo 

t a=»oK'a ^.rf k^>.i tdcutj. Following in very minute 

script: r£rs£v^\ cS.t^jfloo &\i,n»sdflp &vi&ar^ **x &vsox.i 

.,^votA3.i rdii^uxA.i vyr^ .Kba&vat rtd&x. rcdnf .r£acn 

cxAsl Ay AtcA^s i^Ore' rtil'iur^Aa .i^ir^ »\ A&U.1 
.oi^J icncu.Toa&o TJ.-i^r^ aius^ vwK'o .aiiLx. 
cnuMoi po-aL >cncu=M<la cnAo . oisa_\^ ,cocuaooJ±aJto 
K&.T^gocv .K'^u.lOffiQ .r^iofrt'O .rdoxAQ^o rd-WjaCUC 
^oYsjAct Jd>io .rtbujsar? r*&*a"ii\\ ,n<Xoo 

^iSorda ^sar^i .^isanfo ~»r^ .^soLL. See note 94. 

VI. fol. 120b — 124 a. Explanation of philosophical terms. Be- 
ginning: rdj[&cu3ocuLk& rgl^^cia Ax.1 K'isar&o ca<s&% 

VII. fol. 124 a. The greek numerals rdiixsa liox. *=a<s&\. Sub- 
script.: rdixsaxsa ia oicQCU99 r^i\yy Ax. al^o pair. 
£» ^JA.1^09.1 .O.ICX^ &V*S.1 (?) K'AuaVSO ^>31 ^lucu 

r^Axiv^l rdis**or^ &v^-w&v*i KlioCL^ iva K'^ 

VIII. fol. 124 a. A few lines from Epiphanius on Weights and 


measures' commencing: .iiav a r£JUa..T r£ax.a& jaa&x 

(sic!) osoi&cus.i i<&antt&^ oocu&x&rdl. 

IX. fol. 124 b. rdalu A*. >>^sn r^encu csoAi. 

X. fol. 124b. r^i\>i rdln—on childbirth. 
XL fol. 124b. rd&a^i& cuso. 

XII. fol. 125 a — 126 b. On the different uses which can be made 
of each letter by Kamis m e naha bar Kard"ha of Arbe(i)l. b) 

.Beginning: &vt=> AlrC.t rt$\ab\rt AaL r^%saf<sa aok 

Kiirj'iK' Kij.iio "i=> rdursi oausa^ r£i&\sa\ .ins .1- 

XIII. On the first of the unbound leaves a computation of the 
mohammedan months and years pa*. Kb*i».i rdi£uL<x*> 
r*hsx>r<bvL.x r^O^t* rtfUi^n rdjSx.3 ; on which follow 
the names of the mohammedan months, and a second com- 

XIV. An extract from the Usui eddin of 'AbMiso bar B e rik b a: c) 
va ^.oounruw »"isal ^nsa ^*aW Ao-*<i ^a$va>. ,» 
rdk*i=a. On the other side of the page some writing has 
been erased, to make room for a labyrinth which covers the 
greater part of the page, and which is meant to represent 
the walls of Jericho. d) The next two leaves show on the second 
page a number of circles into which writing is interwoven 
in a curious manner. The first contains the names of the 
human senses, the second a rdik.iK'a r^&ia^ re'i.ia** 
the third and fourth r&u* ndL^^and c*A\aca:i r^\\i\, 

a) Compare the edition of Lagarde: Vet. Test, ab Orig. recen. &c. 1880. In 
Ms. Sachau 70, fol. 87 b is a piece on the greek accents. 

b) Mss. Sachau 60. 61. B. 0. iii, p. 256. 

c) The well known author of the Catalogue in B.O.iii. ^^1 Jyal = k e t h ab h a 
d he marganit h a ibid. p. 360. 

d) See quite a similar representation in Kazwin ed. Wustenfeld, ii, p. 406. 


with directions for their use. On the third page a list of 
the stones in Aarons breastplate : %) [r<&re^.i] K'i.ifl© aoii 
.ix.0 .r<£oi-r»o .r£\jna .K-plSoclco ■K'nt ^SLXSa.i 
Then follow again the Arabic months, the number of their 

days, and a computation of the <<dvu!^ r*&u»rtffcvx.. On 
the other side of the page another large circle with circles 
interwoven, upon which pious sayings and wishes are written. 
Leaves 4 and 5 contain a short explanation of the occasion 
for which most of the Psalms were composed — introduced 
with >sb\. On the second page of the fifth leaf a direction 
for making ink i^&cu.i ^oadvt c^Au*— rC .r>a£v On the 
last page of the Ms. some pious verses in a careless hand. 

Ms. Sachau 5. Paper, quart, written in a large modern ne- 
storian hand. There were originally 12V2 kurras of 10 pages each, 
with alternately 18 or 19 lines to the page. The divisions are 
marked in exceedingly large red letters. The number of each 
kurrasah is given in red and black letters at the beginning and 
end. The binding is made up of leaves which, I believe, have been 
taken from Ms. Sachau 167. The Ms. is divided into two parts by 
a double pagination. Following leaves are wanting from the first 
part: fols. 1— 4a, 10,39,46; from the second: fols.21 — 27 (excl.) — 
fol. 1 is in tatters ; p. 57 has been left out by mistake. The Ms. 
has been written by one Sem'on telkep b naya bar Patros; and 

A. I. fol. 4 a — 9 a. Imperfect at the beginning, K^a^ioflo, con- 
jugation of the verb is. Subscription: .rc^viaag paLc 

II. fol. 9b— 56b. Grammar of Elia of S6b h a. On fol. 51a 

a) Extract from Lagarde: Praetermissorum libri duo p. 93, 91 — 98. 



on the margin, in a stiff and inelegant hand: (sic) rdi&xlu 
cix»t=a &ol ? ... A (?) KlusAcuo Kbl >X (R. .sera) can 
vyil=»^A r£).i=a*JSa ju>. Subscription: ceA>usq tX^r&a 

B. III. fol. 1 — 14b. Homoeonym Lexicon. a) fol. la some Arabic 
writing which I do not make out. fol. lb »JC» jL[*jjcs] 

cdsa\jk& &\*s.i rQT.icA A.?ia[«.i] rf'xsar&a ^u=s^& 

Carsunish: &ut+Jf 3 LgjL&J! £ v«jlx£M. Sub- 
scription: Axm.tAo r^&uH-a rC'VSOrdm jt .CL& > . \ T. ■ 

IV. fol. 14b — 30 a. Explanation of the difficult words in the 
foregoing: cru Auk'.i rdoflo^. rC'oaJSOJC. uaXA^ jacv& 
r£acn r^isnr^as. 

V. fol. 30 a — 38 a. Attached to the preceeding, and without 
any separate heading, a second list of words with explana- 
tions. Beginning: .K^ci& £p .i£kfV .aIk'i r£i*JT^ rtf'i.tfl© 

VI. fol. 38a — 45b. A third list, without heading. Beginning: 
rC.i r^i."U»- fol. 44b — 45 middle seems to be an addition 
in a later hand. Subscription: r^ll^n r&ia &u=a >\x. 

fjsaKb .jCar^ rdluo rtfbaui r£so&\&\o ax. ca\o. On 

fol. 46 a is a large cross, covering the page ^y&J! wyJLo 
^LiJI. On the sides a good deal of arabic: 

^UCJt £ ^i* laill i5 iLo 

a) This, and the following, have been edited by Hoffmann in the Opuscula 


(Read ^yS) ^'5^ & o»*l y^m*J 
^UT (Read (?) 15 jG, «*) ^bf^ ^Ut wg-iu-j U 
&c. &c. Upon which some syriac verses follow; under- 
neath the cross ^o^swt. rcTiT^nrsa «ju»<' \ia>. 
VII. fol. 46b— 52a. Mar(i) Ja'kob 11 of Batna (S e rug b ) on Exile a) 
in duodecasyllabic metre. Superscription: r£i=>&iii .so&i 

^oco^iaaoo rc'Vift^K'A^o. Subscription : ^ai^ASai >Ax. 

,.V*r£=> f<iACQAr<' A^-.i aftnVi ,isa riiiw r^t^artlsi 

pd-viA (?) K2m\i »cnos<iiA ox. KTq^m ^ ftywT .. 

VIII. fol. 52 a — 58b. Chronological notices taken from Euse- 
bius of Caesarea. b) Superscription: rciL_*x=j toa aaJ\ 

^OA«Joi&.i rdliix-CUi co r^.T.\Jio-fio pdlaAxA r^UTSa 
rd&CUaAQ&r*' <tt*acoop^ rgaii'VjjA :un% 3 rdixn rdix. Jla.i 
rduVt.l ni'&o&r*' rt^sa.To .ncf> i\pfi\ °v.i. fol. 58 b ff. 
does not seem to belong to this. It seems to be a compila- 
tion, made by the writer of the Ms., from other chro- 
nicles^ — especially from that of Elia of S6b h a, d) who is 
often mentioned as authority. The sections are introduced 
by: %_ar<f Andrso ».^<to- Beginning: ^j* ^o&uacna 
AAgSB.i vOl Ar^T^a iur^ «j<^ re'i.cnsa r^oia >Tsn arc* 
KiisnA\o ^Joqv. p^^vflori'Avx-.t ntf&toAtK' ^cn*k.*rt rCtsn 
X1.C1. Subscription of the whole book: .As. >l^a ^..i ^Acn. 

a) Comp. Wright: Catalogue of syriac Mss. &c. p. 819. 

b) Comp- Ms. Sachau 130. Wright, p. 1039 ff. 

c) For similar compilations see Wright, 1. c. p. 1040 ff. 

d) See Fried. Baethgen: Fragmente syrischer und arabischer Historiker 
Leipz. 1884. 


Ms. Sachau 216. Large folio, written in a good modern nesto- 
rian hand on european paper, bearing the water mark: F. F. Pa- 
lazzoli, contains 24 kurras, and six leaves of kurasah 25. It has 
evidently been written in haste, as the text shows many gaps. In 
a number of places the Ms. is somewhat unreadable, having fallen 
into the Tigris on its way to Berlin. The writer names himself: 
P h ransi bar Giwargis bar Jausep h bar Giwargis of Be(i)t h Mere in 
the neighbourhood of Tell-kep h . He finished his work on Sunday 
evening the 6 th of Tesrin ( ''H e rai 1882. The volume contains: 
I. fol. 5b — 31a. Grammar of Elia of S6b h a. 
II. fol. 31a — 215 b. Grammar of Juhanan bar Zo'bi. Super- 
scription: r*bvM-»x& rc'dta.LSQ ^.i ^lAS&vit .soAi 
(£)i K'colrsd (!)Ajji<hX p&uJbao .jujot.i » n, i^-MSai^* 
^aK* aizsa jjljlU >axot is fU»a*. Subscript.: jAx. 
oniv*> Xi»_s oaA ax. ntflocuso ruasosa ^ict&ui r£s&\& 

ftsnr* ^aSoIu- ptAiA ^juA^ra .^isq\,T. caiiia^so .^uix. 

III. fol. 215b — 226 a. Metrical grammar of Juhanan bar Zo'bi. 

IV. fol. 226 a — 226b. On the four chief interpunctuation signs. a) 
V. fol. 226b — 231a. Explanation of philosophical terms ; com- 
mencing: ntSit can k'cujco.i r^xsar^sn J30& 

VI. fol. 231a — 235a. Explanation of the ten categories; be- 
ginning: K'&iai»ix..i rcSsaainno .rt&cu&ul&t.i r&nxja 
ix.O rC'^.TjJOK' n&O.l i^JK* .sdv^. 
VII. fol. 235 a — 240b. Conjugation of the verb v=»- Subscrip- 
tion: Kbo^ cVxis* rtdvu^p rf&cu&vA^t .jnftia yAx. 

a) Compare note 94. 


r **i>*» b) KSDCLo &v*s.i dx»vu&. Upon this follows a doxo- 
logy. fol. 241a: r£ion r<£s&\& it*! Wwt.o r&so ^x lax, 

aMK" Aux. .oaa •:•©•> . t i»r^ ^ix.&i r&^ia r^jiis 
•oSJnc!' rOuSflK' ax. orAo . . rtf&ua-fcw. fol. 241b: .a&v^rC 

rtf&ioiaiks &\x*cn^o .K'&vu»aii^& rtf&tcusoucas d\i*£k.a 
c) ^L9kO.'Utt^f<'o f^niiso re^Os^sa.i K^rdsalo rcduAoaAaa 
ttcmJiao >isa.i co&uin .r£a«£* A& .rtfca*i^a rcL^-isa* 
>V=n* r^vsao^. .-i 1 V^ A.** rt^jo.T ^.r^ias^i r^i\\y 

•:- t jCst)n^ rdli^o r^V f»'% ^Vi^; Aa ^=a ctl.iojso^A 

^oco^ca^g\ax.."i Klx.'i.i {X*J>ct .rtf&vsacu j&qqoI ^ocoiuj 
( i**it** r^^o"i-3L\a *-5*f' 1 Aa=». fol. 242a: ^*.i .s&v^. 
r£xlu Aa £p jl*» UK" ^Aco rdSl'i^ ^oianrfa \lu o 
^..iccsa rcdijjffla .^ct.i.f rd^'o.i Aa ^39 ^iif\,w.t 

a) Bead >iso.1 ndX*XO rCtSaO^..! B. 0. iii, p. 308. 

b) Hoffmann: Ausziige aus syrischen Akten persischer Martyrer, p. 215, 
n. 1715. 

c) £evo8o^eTov, Payne Smith, col. 183. 

d) Bosen and Forshall's Catalogue &c, pp. 4 and 5. B. 0. ii, 61a. Wright: 
Catalogue p. 756 a. Sachau: Beise in Syrien und Mesopotamien p. 359. 

e) Is this identical with Be(i)t K Mar(i) G-iwargis Wright, Cat. p. 707? 


.co .c£s&v9ls cncox. i^.t^vJS t<OjL rdVi ocb cn^n-X. 

-pcu=> cocVicUMMo »coa ; i-cV3 ^©cnl* crA .pcvajti Klisa 

Upon this there follows a number of pious wishes etc., which 
I do not find necessary to transcribe here. 

The Syriac translation of Dionysius Thrax I have made use 
of in Ms. Sachau 226. a) This is quart, containing 9 kurras of 
10 pages each: the Ms. however commences on fol. 4b. It is written 
on European paper (water mark: IsidoroMoro Ceneda) in a recent 
Nestorian hand; according to Prof. Sachau b) in Alkos in the year 

1881 (?) by one Elyas Homo c) of Alkos. fol. 42b: ouW k^uIo 
^sorc* rdlijj.l relx».i iua rdacLu >_a>cX-u J^-isp*. fol. 86b: 
r£i=>&ucala .rdso^vsk pCjlX.cccAk' cvsaoco caArC' r^.i^uAa 
rcdxu.i KH*.i cVul=3 Klacui t jaoCU> .rteair? rdixsaxsi. Our text 
from fol. 43a until fol. 52b. Superscription: r^ijssrtfso aoii 
rdxu Aj^.i ncL»toco Aoocu i%zn ^ai ..1^=» idusaa rdjjaow.i 
K'^cujax5^3JS3'i\i (ts^vyj). Subscription: Jl^.^ r^Waraa yAx. 

a) For the contents, see E. Sachau: Kurzes Yerzeichniss der Sachau'schen 
Sammlung syrischer Handschriften. Berlin 1885, p. 22. 

b) loc. cit. 

c) B. 0. Ill, p. 352 has a Humu bar Dani'el bar Elia Alkosaya, see Wright, 
Cat. p. 1066. At all events he belongs to the family Homo in Alkds, who are 
kno-wn to be in possession of syriac Mss. See Georg Ebedjesu Khayyath: Syri 
Orientales sen Chaldaei &c. Borne 1870 p. 145, note 1. Hoffmann: Auszuge aus 
syr. Akten etc. p. 5. 


cnAct .Kfinta*w >J»ij >V30 ^_ai ius.i ndi_»vnJSJ .r^tocn 

The grammatical parts of the dialogues of Severus of Tagrit h 
I have read in the incomplete, and hastily written, Ms. Petermann 
1 : 15. This very defective Ms. was written — in a modern Jacobite 
hand— in the year 2137 gr. Aera = 1826. a) 

The K e t h ab h a d he nukze of Jausep b bar Malkon I have read in 
the well-known Aristotelian Ms. Petermann 1. 9 written in the 
year 1260. b) 

Where I have cited the Lexicon of "Eb h dok h os c) I refer to a 
recently acquired Ms. which Prof. Sachau, with his usual liberalitly, 
put at my disposal. The Ms. was written in the year 1791 in a 
large, clear, and exact Jacobite hand: almost completely punc- 
tuated, Rukkak h a and Kussaya marked by large red blots. On 
the margin are a number of massoretic and exegetic notes, taken, 
I believe, from the Ausar (,) Raze of Bar c Eb b raya. I have also made 
use of Ms. Sachau 182 to control the first Ms. d) 

a) See Kurzes Verzeichniss der Sachau'schen Sammlung p. 32. 

b) See Hoffmann: De Hermeneuticis apud Syros Aristoteleis. 2 Leipz. 1873, 
p. 21. Baethgen: Syrische Grammatik des Mar Elias von Tirhan, Leipz. 1880, p. 3 

c) Hoffmann ZDMG. XXXH, 757 writes 'Ab h dok h os. The second Ms. Sachau 
'Ab h d e k h os, fol. 63a: but see Payne Smith col. 1310. 

d) See Rich: Berichtigungen und Zusatze zum fiinften Kapitel der B. H.schen 
kl. Gramm. Leipz. 1885, p. 2 (Assem. in B. O. Ill, p. 308 makes 'Eb h . the author 
of a tract which — to judge from the heading and the example — resembles more 
one published by Hoffmann in the Opusc. Nest.). 



To the excellent tree which is planted by the river of kindness, 
which bringeth forth the fruits of righteousness, the leaves of 
whose excellency do not wither 8 *— desirable young man b) , blessed 
youth, beloved of us, crown of our head— a pious deacon, a ready 
scribe c) , sustained by the everlasting love of the Lord, thy unworthy 5 
Elia greets thee in (the name of) the Messiah, who has instructed 
thee in his teaching, who hath taught thee the secrets of his knowledge, 
and prayeth, that everything that appertained to thee and thine 
shall be supported as becometh his name, and be carried out to 
thy profit. And (thus) I say: Thy cherished letter, beloved one, 10 
has reached me — May our Lord preserve thy life!— I rejoiced at 
its coming, and am thankful to the Lord for thy preservation. I 
have considered what thou hast written, and that thou hast exhorted 
and begged me to write on grammatical subjects, that is, onSyriac 
Orthoepy. But on account of the many worldly affairs (which 15 
demanded my attention) I have been hindered, until now, from 
fulfilling thy wish. (Now) that I have found a little rest, I commence 
to write in brief, that which thou hast wished, for the recreation 
of thy brotherliness. I am (however) persuaded, that thou wilt 

a) <|i 1, 3. 

b) Ezekiel 23, 6. 

c) 3 Esdra. VIII, 3. Thus Ms. Sachau 5 and Ms. Brit. Mus. It is unusual, 
however for a writer to praise himself in this way. 


(also) find excellent and praiseworthy a) things in such, of which I 
have made no mention, having to desist from a lengthy exposition. 
Relying upon the might of our Lord Jesus, the Messiah, I 
commence to write the Syriac Orthoepy 1 composed by Mar(i) 
5 Elia, Metropolitan of S6b h a and of Armenia. Lord sustain me ! 
and bring me, through thy mercy, to the completion (of this book). 
Amen. b) 


I. commence with the letters of the Alphabet. One must know, 
10 that the beginning and foundation of orthoepy and orthography 
are the written letters, such as are called k e t h ib h at h a. 2 

Among the Greeks their number is twenty-four ; among the 
Romans — as Ja'kob 11 'Urhaya has shown in his turas mam(l)la 3 — 
twenty- three; among the Copts thirty; among the Armenians 
15 thirty-six; among the Hindus fifty-two. All these nations write and 
read all words that are written for them, [simply] by writing their 
letters, without (feeling the nead of) explanatory points. But the 
Hebrews, Syrians, Persians, Kusites, Elamites 4 , Medes, Phoenicians, 
Alani, Arabians, and other (nations) unknown to us, have not 
20 enough letters to express the words which they write, i. e. which 
they write in their language, and to read them, as they are, rightly. 
On that account they were compelled to place points over the 
letters, so as to distinguish the vowels and words 5 from each other. 

a) M e sabb e k h anyat h a, the Ms. has plainly M e sabb e lanyat h a which I do not 
25 understand. 

b) B : Relying upon the divine might and faithfulness, I begin to write 
the orthoepy of the Aramaic i. e. of the Syriac language, and (?) the book of 
Mar(i) Elia, Metrop. of Nisibis. Letter to him who put a question to him. Lord ! 
Sustain me! Amen! — C: In the name of our Lord, and in the (name) of God we 

30 begin to write the first book of the Grammar written by the Bishop Elia, Metro- 
politan of S6b h a; and another book (composed) by Rabban Juhanan bar Zo'bi. 


On that account (too), they are only able to read correctly either 
by an act of divination, or by tradition, or by means of, much toil 6 

The letters of the Syriac alphabet are (in number) twenty 
two. 7 Following in their order: Alap h , be(i)t h , gamal, dalat h , he, 
wau, zain, he(i)t h . te(i)t h , yud h , kap h , lamad h , mim, nun, semkat h , 5 
r e, pe, sad b e, kop h , ris, sin, tau. Of these 8 , some are pronounced by 
means of the throat and the root of the tongue; such are four: 
alap h , he, he(i)t h , 'e; some, again, by means of the middle of the 
tongue and the palate; such are three: gamal, kap h , kop h ; some, in 
that the tongue is at rest, and the mouth open; such are two: wau, 10 
yud h . 9 One is pronounced through the middle of the tongue and 
the upper part of the palate; such a one is lamadV Four are 
formed by (a forcible emission of) breath. These are called sibi- 
lants, because, through them, one is able to hiss, as long as the 
breath lasts. Such are zain, semkat b , sad h e, sin. 11 One is pro- 15 
nounced by the extreme part of the tongue and the lower teeth; 
— namely ris. 12 Three are formed by the extreme part of the tongue 
and the upper teeth; namely: dalat h , te(i)t h , tau. One, further, is 
pronounced by the extreme part of the tongue, and above the 
upperteeth — nun. Three are pronounced by the lips: be(i)t h , mim, pe. 20 

These, then, are the twenty-two letters; and this is their 
order, according to the succession of their pronunciation: 13 alap h , 
he, he(i)t h ; gamal, kap h , kop h ; wau, yud h ; lamad h ; zain, semkat h , 
sad h e, sin; ris, dalat h , te(i)t h , tau; nun; be(i)t h , mim, pe. Such is 
their order according to the natural pronounciation of the con- 25 
sonants. But, among all nations possessing a written language, 14 
their order as written letters is different from that according 
to their pronounciation. And with good reason has this been so 
arranged by our forefathers. For were they, as written letters, 
arranged according to their pronounciation, it would be difficult 30 
for the scholars to learn them a) ; for the scholar can impossibly 

a) durasa d h abb e he(i)n? 


read 15 for alap h , be(i)t h , gamal, dalat h — alap h , he, he(i)t h , 'e. (For 
that reason) alap h has been placed as the first letter, because its 
place of pronounciation precedes that of all the other letters. 16 
After it be(i)t h has been placed, the pronounciation of which pro- 

sceeds from the lips, at a distance from the (place of) pronounciation 
of the alaph. After it gamal has been placed, which is pronounced 
by means of the tongue and the palate, at a distance from the 
pronounciation of be(i)t h . In the same way, one letter has been 
placed after the other, at a distance from the pronounciation of 

10 the preceeding and following letters; in such a way that the reading 
of their series is made easy for scholars. In such wise they are 
arranged in all the written languages; for in every language it is 
difficult— not easy — , if two letters, the places of pronounciation of 
which are near to each other, follow one upon the other in speaking, 

15 without a vowel coming between them ; as he(i)t h , I say, with 'e or 
zain with semkat h , or gamal with kop b . 

This, then, suffices on the Pronounciation and Order of 
the letters. 



Among the Arabs, the letters which are moved are divided 
into three classes; among the West-Syrians into five. But among 
us East-Syrians, they are divided into seven classes, 18 (1) such as 
25 are pronounced with z e kap b a, I say, (2) with r e b h asa, (3) with 
p e t h aha, (4) such as stand before a letter with r e waha, (5) with 
'elasa, (6) with 'assaka, and (7) such as stand before a letter with 
h 8 b h asa. 

(1) Such letters as have z e kap h a are as alap h and dalat h in 
3o'ad h am (man), as lamad h and he in 'allaha (God). (2") r e b h asa as the 


alap h in 'esaya 19 , und he(i)t h in helma (sleep); (3)p e t b aha as the 
alap h in 'allaha and the 'e in 'ap b ra (dust) ; (4) such as are before 
a letter with r e waha, as the alap b in '6 (&) and kap h in 'arkona 
(ap^tuv) ; (5) before a letter with 'elasa as nun in nura (fire), sin in 
sura (wall); (6) before a letter with 'assaka as aiap h in 'e(i)l, be(i)t h 5 
in be(i)l ; and (7) before a letter with h e b h asa, as alap b in 'id b a 
(hand), dalat b in saddik (righteous). 

One must know, that the expressions allisut b a and r e wihut h a 
are used of wau; massakut h a and h e b b isut h a of yud b . 

The sign of a letter with zekap h a is two points which areio 
placed, one over the other, in a straight line, above the letter. These 
are (also) called sesla d h al 6 'el 20 (upper sesla). The sign of a letter 
with r"b b asa is two points, which are placed, the one beneath the 
other, in a straight line, beneath the letter. These are (also) called 
sesla d h al°t h aht (lower sesla). The sign of a letter with p e t b aha is 15 
two points, of which the one is placed above, the other below, (the 
letter). The signofwaur e wihtais one point, placed above (the letter). 
The sign of wau 'allista is a point placed underneath (the letter). The 
sign of yud h massakta is two points placed underneath the preceeding 
letter. The sign of yud h h e b b ista is a point which is placed above 20 
(the letter). 

Letters at rest 21 are all such as have neither z e kap h a, nor 
h e b b asa, nor p e t h aha; as lamad b in malka (king), be(i)t b inb e ra(son). 
In the same manner every wau with r e waha or 'elasa, and every 
yud b massakta and h e b b ista is called (at rest) ; as wau in '6, hu 25 
(he) s e b b u (thing), and yud h in ge(i)r and be(i)t b (house). 

This suffices on letters in motion and at rest. 



Radical letters 23 are such as are never separated from the 30 
word, being found in every form in which that word is spoken, 


as'e, be(i)t h , dalat h in ' e b b ad b (to make). For, in all the forms 
in which this word is used, these letters are never wanting. Servile 
letters are divided into two classes; (1) such as add to the word 
a (new) meaning, and (2) such as are used only according to 
5 custom (without being heard in the pronounciation). Servile 
letters which add a (new) meaning, are such as wau in t ab h 6d b a 
(maker), katola (killer), nasob h a (one who takes), which have active 
meaning; as yud h in '"bWa, (something made) k e tila (killed), 
n e sib b a (taken), which have passive meaning; as wau in suhl e p b a 

10 (change), sugg e naya (alteration), surtaha (abundance) — which have 
active as well as passive meaning. So also mim and nun in m e sab- 
b e hana (one who praises), m e add e rana (helper), m e saiana (one who 
attacks) — which have active signification; mim and tau in met h - 
ma(l)lana (that which can be spoken), met bc ab b dana (that which 

15 must be made), met b habb e lana (that which is corruptible) — which 
have a passive signification; and as yud b and alap h in allahaya 
(godly), m e sihaya (pertaining to the messiah), R(h)6maya, Jaunaya; 
as nun and alap u in 'ar ana (earthly), besrana (carnal) ; and as nun, 
yud b ,alap b in'aranaya, besranaya, ruhanaya, which (letters) indicate 

20 nomina derivata. 24 In the same manner (are servile) alap b in 'ek h 61 
(I shall eat), 'este (I shall drink), 'et b bassam (I shall have pleasure), 
the nun in ne'k h 61, neste, net h bassam; tauinte'k h 61, teste, tet b bassam. 
In the same manner alap b and tau in 'et b ' e b h ed h (it was made), 
'et h n e seb b (it was taken), 'et b n e seb b (it was planted) — which indicate 

25 a passive perfect (tense); mim and tau in met h ' e b b ed b , met b n e seb b , 
met h n e seb b — which express a passive present (tense) ; and (as) nun 
and tau in net b ' e b h ed h , net b n e seb h , net h n e seb h — which indicate a 
passive future (tense). 

Servile letters which are used only according to custom, are 

30 divided into such as are generally used, and such as are specially 
used. Servile letters which are in general use, are such as are 
expressed in every writing, according to the opinion and custom 


of our ancestors: as yud h in 'et^al^) 25 (yesterday), 'est e kad h (i) 27 
(the year before), m e natmal(i) (the day before yesterday), mensel(i) 
(suddenly), R(h)6ma, 'Antiok h (i). 2fi According to the custom of our 
forefathers, such are expressed in every writing. Servile letters in 
special use, are such as are added only in the Bible — as he(i)t h and 5 
nun 29 in c ab h din h e nan (we are making), kare(i)n h e nan (we are 
calling), sab h e(i)n h e nan (we wish). Such are found only in the 
Bible, 28 according to the custom of the Palestinian Syrians, 31 who 
translated the Holy Books into the Syrian Language. For they 
require he(i)t h and nun (to be written) in such words, as one canio 
learn from the old books of the old teachers, who wrote and spoke 
the Palestinian language. Ja'kob 11 'Urhaya 30 is of opinion, that the 
reason why he(i)t h and nun are added in such cases is to differenti- 
ate words that are written alike, as kare(i)nan from keryanan 
(our reading), sab h e(i)nan from seb h yanan (our wish), bane(i)nan 15 
(we are building) from benyanan (our building), and the like. 
This, too, suffices on Radical and Servile letters. 



The letters which are called cases are four: be(i)t h , dalat h , 20 
wau, lamad\ These letters are called cases a) because they fall (i. e. 
they come to stand) before nouns, as one says: b e p h ag h ra (in a 
body) d e p h ag h ra, w e p h ag h ra, l e p h ag h ra; b e susya (in a horse) d e susya, 
w e susya, l e susya; b e patros, (with Peter), d e patros, w e patros, l e patros. 
Of these only two stand before verbs, 33 namely: dalad h and wau; 25 
as one says: da e b h ad\ wa' e b h ad b ; w e ' e b h det h , w e ' e b h dat h ; d e ne e b h ad h , 
w e ne e b h ad h . Be(i)t h and lamad h never stand before a verb. 

a) German ,Palle'. I use the word 'case' for the letter which denotes that case. 


One must know that it happens that but one case stands 
before a word; as one says: ballaha, dallaha, wallaha, lallaha; at 
times two, as when one says: d e b h allaha, w e d h allaha; at times three, 
as when one says: bad he lallaha, wad he lallaha, lad he b h allaha ; at times 

5 all four, as one says: w e b h ad he lallaha, w e lad he b h allaha etc. 

One must know, that when a case comes before a word, the 
first letter of which has a vowel — said case is pronounced without 
a vowel ; except where the first letter is an alap h , whose vowel, then, 
is thrown upon the case, alike if said case be one letter or more. 

10 If now this case comes before a word, Avhose first letter is vowel- 
less, the case is pronounced with p e t h aha; except when the first 
letter of the word is an alap b , as the alap h in 0) nasa (man) 34 'ar'a 
(land), which causes the preceeding case to become vowelless — be 
this case one or more. If two cases come before a word, whose 

15 first letter has a vowel, the first case is pronounced with p e t h aha, 
the second is left without a vowel; as one says: wal e hakkima, dal e - 
hakkima, bad Ue hakkima, lad he hakkima. Is, however, the first letter 
of the word vowelless, then the first case remains, also, without 
a vowel, the second being pronounced with p e t h aha; as one says: 

20 b e d h am e siha, w e lam e siha, d e b h am e siha l 6 d h am e siha. If three cases 
come before a word, whose first letter has a vowel, the first and 
third cases are pronounced with a vowel, the second, however, with 
p e t h aha; as one says: w e lad be malka, w^'ab^sehyon, w e d h ab he 'e(d)ta. 
If the first letter of the word be vowelless, the first and third cases 

25 are pronounced with p e t h aha, the second vowelless ; as one says ; 
lad h eb b am e siha, wad h eb h am e siha. If four cases come before a word, 
whose first letter has a vowel, the first and third cases are pro- 
nounced with p e t h aha, the second and fourth (remain) vowelless; 
as one says: wal e d h ab he ziwa, wal e d h ab he e(d)ta, and as in the book 

30 [of Samuel] 35 wal e d h ab he rak b il, wal e d h ab he kurya. If, however, the 
first letter of the word be vowelless, the first and third case re- 
main without a vowel, the second and fourth are pronounced with 


p e t b aha; as one says: w e lad b eb h am e siha, w e lad he b b at e nana, w e lad be - 
bak be yana. 

In short 36 — one must know, that every case wich comes before 
a word, is pronounced, either without a vowel, or with p e t b aha. If, 
however, the first letter of the word be an alap b , said alap h throws 37 5 
its motion or rest on the case preceeding. Two case-letters (both) 
vowel-less, or (both) pronounced with p e t b aha, do not occur. 38 

One must know, that in the Bible there are certain words 
which do not follow these rules; as the words: diso', daihud h a, 
dama", daihud b aye, dad h yate(i)ke. These (are pronounced in thisio 
manner) for reasons otherwise apparent to the discerning. 39 They are 
not pronounced according to the rules here laid down ; for when we 
say dab b iso', waliso', we pronounce the case with p e t b aha (instead of 
without a vowel). Also when we say baihud b a, daihud b a 40 , laihud b a, 
waihud h a; and thus when we say baihud b aye, daihud h aye, laihud b aye; 15 
and when we say bama", dama", wama", lama", we pronounce the case 
before mim with p e t b aha. When we say: bad b yate(i)ke', wad b ya- 
te(i)ke', lad h yate(i)ke', we pronounce the case before dalat b with 
p e t b aha. Only in one place (where this word occurs) do we leave 
the case before dalat h vowelless, and that is, in the fourth section 20 
of Hosea a) , where this word occurs thus: w e wad b yate(i)ke' am 
'at b 6raye e b b ad b (u) (and they do make a covenant with the Assy- 
rians) where the wau before the dalat h of d e yate(i)ke', is vowelless. 

This then suffices on the cases. 

a) 12,2. 




Such are six: be(i)t b , gamal, kap b , pe, tau. The rules for the 
5 placing of rukkaha and kussaya in respect to pe, are different to 
those of the other five — as we will show further on. When one 
of these five other letters, be(i)t h , I say, and gamal, kap h , pe, 
tau, stands at the beginning of a word, it is pronounced with 
kussaya, as one says: baita (house), gab h ra(man), dina (judgement), 

10 kahna (priest), tammima (righteous). If a case comes before the 
word, it causes the first letter of the word to be spoken with 
rukkaha ; as one says : b e b b aita, d e b b aita, w e b h aita &c. If the first 
letter of the word be a vowelless tau, upon which a dalat b or tau 
with vowel and rukkaha follows, and one of the cases comes before 

15 the word, — then is the tau at the beginning of the word not pro- 
nounced with rukkaha, but with kussaya; 42 as we read, watt e d h un 
'urlut h a a) (and uncircumcision shall judge), watt e d h us(i) 'ar a b) (letthe 
earth be glad), w e latt e d b aya d b ain e kuk bo) (the breasts which suckled 
thee), watt e t h ub h (i) ['ara men'aula(h)] d) (and the earth shall turn 

20 from its wickedness), watt e t b ub 1, un. If the tau at the beginning of the 
word be pronounced with a vowel, then with rukkaha, as we say: 
b e t b ed b murta, d^ed^urta &c. If the first letter of the word be dalat h 
or tau with a vowel, before which a dalat b as case comes, and before 
this another case — then is the dalat h which is the case before the first 

25 letter of the word, pronounced with kussaya; as we say: wad- 

a) Eomans 2, 27. 

b) «j» 96, 11; 97, 1. The Mss. give watt e d h u§ without yud h . But comp. 
Severus and Bar 'Eb h raya i, 221, 3. 

c) Luke 11, 27. d) According to Bar 'Eb h . i, 221, 3. 



d e d h ame, wadd e t h ed h '6n. If the first letter of the word be vowelless, 
the case is pronounced with p e t h aha, the first letter of the word 
with rukkaha; as we say: w 8 d h ad h0 yasa, w e d b at be wat h a, w e d h at be - 
yab b ut h a. If one of these (five) letters be one of the radical letters 
of a word, and that word is a noun, as that noun is pronounced, 5 
masculine or feminine, singular or plural, or a form ending in na, 
as gab b ya, gab b ye, g e b h aya, g e b b it b a, gab b yat h a, gab h yai, gab h yak\ 
g e b h aik b 6n — in the same manner is that word pronounced (in 
respect to rukkaha and kussaya) in all other forms and in all the 
forms with personal suffixes in which these forms occur. Except 10 
in a few cases; such as marga (meadow) mar e g h e (pi.) ; r esba (herbs) 
c es e b b e; pelga (part), pel e g h e; zelga 43 (splendour), zel e g e e; 44 gunba, 45 
(theft), gun e b h e. 

If one of these letters belongs to the radical letters of a verb, 
as it is pronounced in one of the forms of the verb — indicating 15 
one of the tenses — in the same manner is it pronounced (as 
regards rukkaha and kussaya) in all the examples of that form 
and of that tense, and likewise (in all the forms) of that tense with 
the personal suffixes. 46 Except when the verb indicates the future 
tense, and the nun at the beginning is vowelless, the letter fol- 20 
lowing pronounced with rukkaha or p e t h aha, or is a k e d b am 
allist h a — as n e b h assem, n e g b anne, n e d b abbar, n e k b annes, n e d b un, 
n e d h us, n e t h ub h — in all these verbs, when they occur in the first 
person, and an alap b r e b h ista takes the place of the nun, the second 
letter is pronounced with kussaya ; as : ebbassem, egganne, eddabbar, 25 
ekkannes, eddun, eddus, ettub b — and in all that are similar to these. 47 
If one of these five (letters) occurs at the end of a word, the letter before 
which is vowelless, and the letter before this vowelless letter is a 
/ z e kip h t b a, r e b h ista, or p e t h ihta, then is the letter at the end of the 
word pronounced with kussaya ; as : kamt, n e ha(t b )t, s e kalt, a(n)t, lait, 30 
l e t h aht, et h nasb, et h bark. If the letter before the last be one with a 
vowel, or be a wau r e wik h ta, wau allista, yud b mass e kana or yud h 


h e b b ista, then is the last letter pronounced with rukkaha, as: 
haddet b , n e het b , n e sab h , n 9 sub h , n e hub h , k e ne(i)t\ If the word be 
a verb, indicating the preterite, either according to the inflection 
of ' e b b ad h , s e g h ed h , 'ehad b , or 'et b ' e b h ed b , when it is used in the 

5 first or third singular, masculine or feminine and other letters are 
added at the end — i. e. the personal suffixes 48 — then is the last 
radical letter pronounced with kussaya, when it has a vowel, and 
the preceeding letter is vowelless; as one says, 'eb b det h , 'eb h dat h , 
c ab h dan &c. Is, however, the last radical letter vowelless, the letter 

10 preceeding with vowel — or both letters have vowels, then (is the last 
radical letter) pronounced with rukkaha, as one says: <e b b ad b t, 
s e g h ed h t, 'ehad b t, ' e b h ed h e(i)n, s e g h ed h e(i)n. If the verb indicates the 
present tense, it is treated in the same manner in respect to ruk- 
kaha, and kussaya, when the verb is either of the form 'ab b ed b , 

i5'ahed h , met hte b h ed h or met b n e seb\ If the verb indicates the future 
tense, it is also treated in the same manner in respect to rukkaha 
and kussaya, be it of the form ne'bad h , ne'hod h or net b<e b b ed b . Is 
the verb an imperative, then is the last radical letter pronounced 
with rukkaha: as ' e b b ed b ai(hi) a) , 'ahod h ai(hi), h e rob b ai(hi). But if 

20 the verb expresses the persons of the plural (Imperfect) Active, 

and the letter before the last is vowelless, and before this vowelless 

letter there is a wau allista, then is the last radical spoken with 

kussaya in the following manner: c ub h du(hi), hurbu(hi), et h raurbu- 

.(hi), uhdu(hi). 

25 One must know, that the tau which occurs after the radicals 

of a verb, i. e. the personal pronoun of the first person masculine(!), 
when one letter or two, or more, come after it, is pronounced with 
kussaya; as one says: ' e b h ad h tak h , s e 'artak h , dabbartak b , &c. If 
the letter before the tau be yud h massakta, it is pronounced with 

30 rukkaha, as s e ne(i)t h ak b , s e ne(i)t b a(h), k e re(i)t b ak b &c. 

a) A for a, see Nold., Syr. Gramm. § 190 G. 


Honain 49 the Physician teaches in his book on the points, that 
every tau of this (first) person ought really to be pronounced with 
rukkaha. And, in truth, this is a correct rule, justified by the fact 
that we, when we say: 'eb b det h , seg h det h , meshet h , kadd e set h , we 
pronounce the tau with rukkaha. It were proper (therefore) that 5 
the tau be also pronounced with rukkaha, where the form receives 
an increment; in like manner as the tau of the other persons, as 
it is pronounced when it is at the end of the word, so it is pro- 
nounced when other letters are added (to the word). Our teachers, 
however, have so regulated it that the tau which stands for theio 
first person masculine (!) be spoken with kussaya, — even though 
the rule demand its being pronounced with rukkaha — in order 
that (those) words in which occurs be distinguished form words 
which are feminine, as kabbelte(h) (,) na (I have received him) from 
kabbelt h e(h)hi (she has received him) &c. When this tau is the 15 
personal suffix of the second person masculine, it is pronounced 
with kussaya, as <e b b ad h tan(i) (thou hast made me) &c. ; when, 
however, it is the personal suffix of the feminine, it is pronounced 
with rukkaha; as one says: re b h ad h t h an(i) (she has made me) &c. 

This, then, suffices on the placing of kussaya and rukkaha 20 
with respect to these five letters. 





Pe is pronounced in three different ways : 50 (I) with rukkaha, 
as pe in nap b sa (soul), yap h t (Jephet) 31 , nep h tal(i) (Naphtali); 
(II) a little with kussaya and in a simple manner, 52 as pe in pag h ra 


(body), pat h 6ra (table), pilasa (dish); (III) strongly with kussaya 
as pe in pinna (icopetov), s e rapa (seraph), zopa (uaouvrcos). (Pe) 
is never pronounced with rukkaha at the beginning of a word, nor 
at the end. If 53 one of the cases occurs before a word, the first letter of 

5 which is pe, it does not cause this (pe) to be pronounced with rukkaha, 
as it does the other (letters). Except in a few places, as in the 
twelfth section of Exodus a) : la teb b ne (iuhi) b h ap be silt h a (thou shalt 
not build it of hewn stones). When (pe) occurs as the end-letter 
of the radicals of a verb, and letters are added to (that verb), i. e. 

10 the personal suffixes, in no form is it spoken with rukkaha, but, 
in all the inflections of the verb is pronounced with kussaya. 

One must know that there is no pe with rukkaha, which is 
not vowelless; and no pe with kussaya — simple or strong — which 
has no vowel. 54 

is The sign for all letters with kussaya is one point placed 

above the letter; the sign of rukkaha is one point placed beneath 
the letter ; the sign of pe pronounced strongly with kussaya is two 
points placed above it. 

In regard to the letters which receive kussaya and rukkaha 

20 let this suffice. 



Letters which are absorbed are three: alap h , yu.d h , wau. 56 

Each one of these is absorbed in three different ways ; they are 

25 absorbed either (I) in writing as well as in reading, or (II) absorbed 

in writing, but expressed in reading, or (III) expressed in writing,- 

but absorbed in reading. Such as are absorbed in writing as well 

a) 20, 25. 


as in reading, are : the alap h in b e na (he built), kera, (he read), h e za 
(he saw), k e na (he bought) — which is absorbed when we say: b e nau 
(they [masc] built), k e rau, h°zau, k e nau; b e nai (fern.), k e rai, h e zai, 
k e nai. 57 It were proper to add wau or yud b to the alap h of these 
words — when we say b e nau, h e zau &c, just as they are added after 5 
lamad b of s e kal(u), s e kal(i), and after he(i)t b of p e lah(u), p e lah(i), 
and after dalat h of ' e b h ad h (u), ' e b h ad b (i). Such as are absorbed in 
writing, but expressed in reading, are as alap b in 'Israel, 'ima (he 
swore), 'isep h (he borrowed), 'id b a (he knew) ; and as wau in kul (all), 
metul (because). 58 Such as are expressed in writing, but absorbed 10 
in reading are as 59 the first alap h in (,) nasa (man), 0) raza 
(secret); alap b in ma 1 ' 1 (hundred), tama/^ (unclean), sug b a' (many); 
as wau in k e tal(u), p e lah(u), <e b h ad h (u); as yud b in bait h (i) (my 
house), karm(i) (my vineyard), e b b ad b (i), ab h dan(i), barr e k h an(i), 
kadd e san(i), barrek h (i), karreb b (i), kaddes(i). The reason (for the 15 
absorbtion) of all these is known to the discerning, so that a lengthy 
exposition, on my part, is unnecessary. 

Let this suffice on the letters which are absorbed. 



One must know that a letter which is doubled in the 
middle of a word, when the first is at rest, the second in 
motion — the first i. e. the letter at rest is assimilated, the second 
'pronounced; as the mim in sa(m)mane (spices), 'a(m)me (people), 25 

a) Elia confuses here two different phenomena which I have tried to 
express by a double translation. 


be(i)t h in a(b)bane a) (fruit) ; nun in ma(n)na, lamad b in m 6 k b a(l)lin 
(they [maac] crown), m e k b a(l)lan (fern.); m e ma(l)lin (they [masc] 
speak), m e ma(l)lan (fern.); kop h in m e p h a(k)kin (they are talkative 
[masc.]), m e p b a(k)kan (fern.); ris in 62 ha(r)ra(h) (he has released 
5 her), ha(r)ran(i) (he has released me); m e ha(r)un, m e ha(r)ran 63 ; 
tau in 'e(t)t e wi (he repented) &c, and as we say : 'e(t)t e sim (he was 
placed); 'e(t)t B p b ir (he became angry) &c; and as we say: wa(l)- 
lamek h (and to Lamech); wa(m)maikane (and deriders); wa(m)- 
m e ramrane (and contentious ones); and the like. Where dalat h 

10 with kussaya follows a tau with kussaya and without a vowel — the 
tau is assimilated; as the tau in 'e(t)d e ni (he came near); 'e(t)d e wi 
(he was wretched); 'e(t)d e b h ar (he was lead). And where a tau with 
a vowel and kussaya follows a vowelless dalat h — the dalat is 
assimilated; as the dalat h in m e si(d)ta (net); ,e b h i(d)ta (deed). 

15 Where a te(i)t h follows a vowelless tau — the tau is assimilated, as 
the tau in 'e(t)tayyab h (he was prepared), 'e(t)tannap b (he was 
polluted), 'e(t)tarri (he made a rush), 'e(t)tamma (he became 
unclean); and where a tau with a vowel and kussaya follows a 
vowelless te(i)t b , thete(i)t h is assimilated; as the te(i)t h in asle(t)tak h 

20 (he set thee over), asle(t)tai (hi); asle(t)tan(i) ; la(t)tai (hi) (thou 
[fern.] hast cursed him). Where a vowelless dalat h with rukkak b a 
is followed by tau with a vowel and rukkak h a, dalat h is assimilated; 
as dalat u in ha(d h )t h a (new), ha(d h )t h ait h (newly), ha(d h )t h ut h a 
(novelty). Every vowelless nun, before which is a yud h b e b h ista, and 

25 after which a tau m e kassaita, is suppressed ; 64 as nun in m e di(n)ta (city),, 
s e p h i(n)ta (ship). So also, if before the nun a letter with p e t h aha; 
as z e b b a(n)ta (time), sa(n)ta (year) b) . When we say y(h)ud h ayey 
r(h)6maye, par(h)esia, 66 we suppress the he. And when we say 
ye(h)bet h , ya(h)b b te(i)n &c. in all the forms of the perfect in which 

30 this word is used we suppress the he. As also the he is suppressed 

a) Bead e(b)bane as in Payne-Smith, col. 7. 

b) B and C add: and when we say 'nasa. &c 65 


in the forms of met b iheb h , 'et b iheb b , net h iheb h (i. e. of the 'Ethp e 'el) 
when it is vowelless; as we say: met b ya(h)bin, met b ya(h)ba &c. 
When, however, the tau has a vowel, then (the pronounciation of the 
he) is required ; as 'et^hebH, 'et h iheb b &c. Lamad b of (the verb) 'ezal, 
'azel, ne'zal, is suppressed wherever it is necessary according to the 5 
inflection of this verb ; (that is) where lamad h has a vowel, the 
zain before it being vowelless. In such cases the vowel of the 
laraad h is thrown upon the zain, and the lamad b is suppressed; 
as we say 'eze(l)t h &c. If the zain naturally (i. e. not having received 
it from the lamad h ) has a vowel, and the lamad b is vowelless — orio 
both letters have vowels, the lamad b must then be pronounced, 
as: 'ezal, 'ezalt &c. 

In short 67 — one must know, that a letter is neither absorbed 
in reading, nor assimilated, nor suppressed, except it be vowelless. 

Let this, too, suffice on the letters which are assimilated. 15 



One must know, that where a kap b or kop b with a vowel 
follows a vowelles zain — such a zain is pronounced as semkatfe^o 
as the zain in z e k b arya, z e kip h a (cross), z e kip b ut b a (crucifiction), 
'ezka^a 69 (rings), z e k b a (he was victorious). Where a vowelless 
semkat b is followed by a letter with a vowel and kussaya, it is 
pronounced as zain; as the semkat b in 'esba (herbs); 'asga (make 
increase), nesge; nesbet b (I have taken), nesbat h ; mesdar (to order), 25 
nesdor ; mesgar (to close), nesg e ri(h) ; kusbart b a (coriander) ; 70 and all 
that are like these. Where a vowelless te(i)t b is followed by sin 
having a vowel, it is pronounced like tau; as te(i)t b in netson (they 
will hide), netse, matsait b . 71 Where a vowelless kop b is followed by 
a letter, having a vowel and kussaya, it is pronounced as gamal; 72 3o 


as kop h in yakda (burning); yakdana; ne'kdon; pukdana; ekbor 
(I will bury); wal e mekb e ran(i) — and all that are similar to these. 
Where a vowelless dalat h with kussaya is followed by kop h with 
a vowel, it is pronounced like te(i)t h ; as the dalat h in protd e ka 

5GiLu**i ambassador) protd e kaye; k e potd e kaye. 73 Where te(i)t b 
without a vowel, is followed by pe m e kassaita — as pe in pag b ra — 
it is pronounced like dalat b ; as te(i)t h in neht e p b unak b74 (they will 
tear thee away) ; neht e p b an(i) ; nutp b et b a (drop) ; where a vowelless 
kop h is followed by a pe having a vowel, it is pronounced like 

iokap b ; 75 as the kop h in 'esk e p h a (oxocpog); k e p h asa (knee); 'et b k e p h es 
(it was assembled); nezk e p b 6n (they will hang). If a vowelless 
semkat b is followed by a pe saggi m e kassaita — as pe in zopk — it 
is pronounced as sad b e; as the semkat b of sep^a 76 (book) (!); 
s e p h ar ja(m)ma (sea-shore) (!); where a vowelless gamal m e rak- 

I5kak b t h a is followed by pe m e kassaita, 77 it is pronounced like kap b ; 
as the gamal of g e p be tta (vine); g e p b ip h t b a 78 (enclosure); g e p b ip b a 
(crooked). Vowelless sin followed by a letter with a vowel and 
kussaya, is pronounced as the gamal of the Arabs ; 79 as the sin in 
nesbon (they will carry into exile) ; nesgon (they will go astray) ; 

20 nesdon (they will throw). 

In short- — every letter that interchanges with another is 

Let this, then, suffice on the letters that interchange with 
one another. 






30 I will now say — that these two points are placed over all nouns 


in the plural number, be they masculine or feminine ; as we place them 
over (the words): gab h re (men); nese (women); h e lime (healthy); 
h e limat b a(fem.);zaddike (righteous), zaddikat h a(fem.); hamsa gab b rin 
(five men); ' e sar nesin (ten women); 'esra zaddikin (ten righteous); 
hamsa lflimin (five healthy); t e lat h a kaddisin (three holy); t e lat b 5 
kaddisan (fern.). They are moreover placed over feminine plural verbs 
as Ce b h ad h (i), 'abMan &c. ; over masculine plural verbs, however, — as 
<e b h ad h :'ab b din; nebdon — s e yame are not placed. Moreover, over 
all masculine plural words which stand in stead of a noun or a 
verb, s e yame are not placed; as one says: '"b^d^n, h e limin, zad-io 
dikin. For, in this case ' e b h id h in, h e limin, zaddikin stand for the 
passive (participles) "made", "healthy", "righteous". 'Vid^n, 
h e limin, zaddikin however, when they signify a number of 
made things, of healthy persons, of righteous persons, receive 
s e yame. 81 Nouns which have a singular form, but are in reality 15 
plurals, 82 as kensa (congregation) ; masrit b a (camp) ; amma (people) ; 
si't b a (crowd); bakra (ox-herd); rahsa (reptile); rak h sa (horse); 
'ana (sheep); and the like, take partly the (points) s e yame, and 
partly not. They are placed over such (of these) as are not used 
in any other form but (this) one, as rahsa, rak h sa,'ana. For nouns 29 
like these are used in no other but this one form: rahsa, rak h sa, 
ana a) . Over bakra, however, kensa, 'ama, masrit b a, sit b a and the 
like s e yame are not placed, because we say bakre, kense &c. Over 
all nouns which are not used in the singular, but, (only) in the 
plural 83 number, as maya (water) ; d e maya (price) s'yame are placed. 25 
Over nouns which have singular and plural meaning, 84 as s e maya, 
0) nasa, s e yame are not placed. The noun s e maya is used in the 
singular when we say: la b b as e maya d he k b urs e ya(h)u d b allaha b> 
(not by heaven, for it is God's throne) ; in the plural number, when 

a) B and C: for we do not say: 'ane, rak^se, rahse. b) Math. 5, 34. 


we say: nehdon s e maya watt^'us^i) 'ara 8 > (let the heavens rejoice, 
and let the earth be glad). 85 The noun ( '>nasa 86 is used in the 
singular, when we say. la t b ehde 'al (,) nasa d be maet bb) (rejoice not 
over a man that is dead); in the plural number, when we say: 

5it h ^nasa d be kaimin t e nan c) , (there are men standing here). Upon 
such and the like we do not put s e yame. Upon such nouns that 
are plural in number, but in their pronounciation resemble singular 
ones, as kurya 87 (cities), hemra (asses), taira (bird), s e yame are 
placed. Upon all words that are written in only one form, and 

10 from the pronounciation of which we understand that they are of 
the plural number 88 — as 'ike' (six?)), d e yat h e(i)ke' (8ia8^x7j), ananke* 
(avdpcf]) — , s e yame are not placed. Upon all personal pronouns 
in the plural number — as hale(i)n, henon &c, s e yame are not 
placed. All words, which are neither nouns nor verbs, when the 

15 personal suffixes are attached to them — as'al, am, metul. se(i)d b , 89 
l e wat b , h e d b ar, (the letters) be(i)t b , lamad h — do not receive s e yame; 
for we say: kulhon, kulhe(i)n, 'amhon, 'amhe(i)n &c. &c. 

In short — all words, which, when the personal suffixes are 
wanting receive s e yame, (receive them) likewise when these suffixes 

20 are added, as (from) batte and darat h a we say battain, darat h an, 
battaik b 6n, darat b k h 6n, darat b k h e(i)n, and the like. If, without 
the additions, they do not receive s e yame, then, when these are 
added, they (likewise) do not receive them; as (from) baita, darta 
we say: baitan, baitk b 6n, baithe(i)n &c, and others similar 

25 to these. 

This, also, suffices, on the two points called s e yame. 

a) ty 96, 11. b) ?. c) ?. 




Every letter which is spoken with z e kap h a and occurs in the 
middle of a word, is pronounced in spelling with z e kap h a; and so 5 
every r e b b ista (is pronounced) with r e b b asa, every p e t b ihta with 
z e kap b a, every letter before a r e wihta with r e waha, every letter 
before an 'allista with ' e lasa, every letter before a massakta with 
'assaka, every letter before a h e b h ista with h e b h asa. If a letter with 
h e b h asa occurs at the beginning of a word — as yud h in id b a, iso', 10 
izep b , ima — it is pronounced in spelling with r e b b asa. A vowelless 
letter which occurs at the beginning of a word is pronounced in 
spelling with z e kap b a. Every vowelless 'alap h which occurs in the 
middle of a word, is pronounced in spelling with the same vowel 
as the preceding letter. Every wau r e wihta or 'allista, yud h i5 
massakta or h"b b ista which occurs in the middle of a word, is 
pronounced in spelling with r 9 b h asa. Furthermore, every vowelless 
letter which occurs in the middle of a word, and every letter at 
the end of a word is pronounced in spelling with r e b h asa. 

This, too, suffices on the spelling of the letters. 20 



These are four (in number) : zauga, tahtaya, elaya and pasoka. 
(We will further show) in what manner it is proper that each one 
6f them be used. 25 

Zauga is put between the members of the commencement (of 
a sentence), when the protasis is long; 92 as kad h de(i)n 'et b iled b 


iso b he b h e(i)t h l e hem daihud h a: b e yaumai herodes malka a) . Because 
the protasis is long, zauga is put in the middle of it; that is, after 
the noun daihud h a. In the first place on account of the breath, 
that the reader be not hard pressed because of the length of 

5 the sentence; secondly because it is more fitting to place zauga 
after 'ihud h a than in any other place. 

Tahtaya is put when the protasis is ended and the apodosis 
commences; as: kad' 1 de(i)n 'et b a iso lat h ra d he kesraya d be p h ilipos •. 
m e sa'el(h)wa l e t h almid h au(hi) w'emar b) . Because the word d e p b ilipos 

10 is the end of the protasis, and the word m e sa'el the beginning 
of the apodosis, it is proper that tahtaya be put after p h ilipos, in 
order that it be known that the protasis is at an end and the 
apodosis commencing. 

'Elaya is put between the legs y;} , i. e. the members of the 

is apodosis, when the apodosis is long, as: had h e d b e(i)n kula(h) 
d h ah e wat h d e net h malle medem detVmar (marya) b be yad' 1 n 6 b b ia . 
d e hai [Read d e ha] b h8 t h ulta t h eb h tan[i] wVelad h [i] b*ra.- w'nekron 
s e me(h) 'ammanu'el c) . 94 

Pasoka is put when the sense (of the sentence) is complete; 

20 as: h e wa ramsa wah e wa sap h ra yauma had h . d) and as: yaumanii 
'am(i) teh e we b he pardaisa. e) When the protasis is incomplete — in 
that it comes to an end with one clause, zauga is not put; but at 
the end tahtaya is placed and then, the apodosis sets in ; as : kad 11 
c al l'ureslem*. e(t)t e zi'at h kula(h) m e di(n)ta .^ ; and as: wal e yauma 

25d b at he lat h a-. h e wat h mestut h a b be katne' m e di(n)ta d h ag he lila . g) If 
both protasis and apodosis are incomplete, in that they come to 
an end with one clause, instead of tahtaya, samka is put between 
protasis and apodosis; as: 'ab h raham 'auled h lishak b) ; and as: da(n)t 
tet h k e re k^'p^.^ If the protasis be medium, so that it comes to 

a) Math. 2, 1. b) Math. 16, 13. c) Math. 1, 23. d) Gen. 1, 5. 
e) Luke 23, 43. f) Math. 21, 10. g) Johu 2, 1. 
h) Math. 1, 2. i) John 1, 43. 


an end with one clause, the apodosis with two or more, the first 
clause, i. e. the protasis, is divided off by tahtaja, the other follo- 
wing clauses, which constitute the apodosis, are divided off by 
elaya. At the end of the whole sentence pasoka is put ; as : b e yarha 
d''e(i)n das e t b a% 'est e lah gab b ril mala'k h a/ men l e wat h 'allaha.- 5 
lag he lilalam e di(n)tad h as e ma(h) nasrat h . a) ; and as: hannanya*. manau 
d e hak b ana m e la atana [b he ]lebak\- datt e d h aggel b e ruha d he kud be sa / 
wa(t)tasse men kespa dadd e me(ih) d h ak e rit b a. b) When both pro- 
tasis and apodosis are long, then must necessarily the protasis be 
divided off by zauga, at the end of which tahtaya is put; and theio 
apodosis is divided off by 'elaya, at the end of which pasoka is 
put; as: wah e wa d he k b ad h salkin (h)wau sem'on ke'p h a w e yuhanan 
ak h h e d h a l e haikla : b e 'eddana d h as e 16t u a d h at he sa sarin-. w e ha 
g h ab b ra [bad b h e g b ira] d he men k e res 'eme(h) .• s e kilin (h)wau (,) nasa 
'aile(i)n dam e 'ad b in w e maite(i)n w e saimin le(h).- b e t b ara d Ue haiklai5 
d be met h k e ra sappira. c) 

Let this also suffice on the points. 




In the first place one must know, that there are nouns which 
are used in the singular, 95 but not in the plural; others that are 
used in the plural, but not in the singular; there are some which 
are used in the masculine gender, but not in the feminine; others 
which are used in the feminine, but not in the masculine. Some 25 
again are used in the singular and plural, masculine and feminine. 
Such as are used in the singular, and not in the plural as: s e rara 

a) Luke 1, 26. b) Acts. 5, 3. c) Acts. 3, 1.2. 


(truth); kusta (truth), 'a(n)ta (woman). Such as are used in the 
plural, and not in the singular, as maya (water) , d e maya (price) , 
p e latawat h a (7cXaxeia). Such as are used in the masculine, 
and not in the feminine as; nesra (eagle), baka (knat), 'ud h a (owl), 
szaita (olive tree), 'arza (ceder tree). Such as are used in the 
feminine and not in the masculine gender, as: s e nunit h a 96 (swal- 
low),* sep h ra (bird), tet h a (fig), 'enb e t h a (grape). Such as are 
used in the singular as well as in the plural, are as the word 
w nasa. Such as are used in the masculine as well as in the 

10 feminine gender are as: 'a'ar (a^p), s e maya (heaven), semsa (sun), 
ruha (wind), h e mara (ass). Such as are used in singular and 
plural number, in masculine and feminine gender; as the noun: 
s e maya. For when we say : la b h as e maya d he k h urs e ya(h)u d h allaha we 
show (its being used as) masculine and singular. We say also: 

isnehdon s e maya watt 6 d h 6s(i) 'ar'a — where we show (its being used 
as) plural; and we say. semkat h ge(i)v s e maya k he mirait h , b) and 
show (its being used in) the feminine gender. 

One must know that for the Syriac nouns there are no rigid 
rules, 97 from which one can learn to form from singular and mas- 

20culine (nouns), plural and feminine ones. On the contrary, one 
must learn to understand (the inflection) of allmost all, through 
means of tradition — with very few exceptions. For the verbs, 
however, there exist rules, by means of which one can learn their 
inflexions, the vowel-movements of their letters, the cases when 

25kussaya and rukkaha are made use of. For, as every verb indicating 
(one) of the tenses is pronounced, (in that form), together with 
(the forms) to which the personal suffixes are added — in the same 
manner are inflected all verbs of the same form, denoting the same 
tense and person. 

a) Jer. 8, 7. b) Math. 16, 3. 


1. I have rendered turas mam(l)la with 6p6oe7teta, since 
Elia of Tirhan 4, 17 (compare transl. p. 25 note 2) has taught us 
the real meaning of these words. Compare also the commencement 
of Ms. B of Elia of Nisibis: d e lesana 'aramaya and of Chap. I — 

5 where orthography as well as orthoepie are mentioned (5, 5). a) It 
is strange that Baethgen himself (1. c. p. 4) makes use of the 
senseless expression: "Emendation of the Syriac Language" (Ver- 
besserung der syrischen Sprache). b) The expression seems to 
have arisen from a wrong conception of the extent of the grammar 

10 of Jacob of Edessa, according to which Wright (Catalogue of the 
Syriac Manuscripts &c. p. 1168) translates "Emendation of the 
Mesopotamian Language", although he himself says (ibid.) that it 
was only "partly with the view of recommending this system (of 
the vowel-letters) to his countrymen that he composed" his gram- 

15 mar. Abbe Martin (Histoire de la Ponctuation p. 41) translates 
wrongly: "correction des Smahe". c) 

2. r*&va]>'&\& = Ypdjifiaxa, e^ypofiaxa (Steinthal, Geschichte 
der Sprachwissenschaft p. 285) comp. A letter of Mar Jacob &c. 
ed. Phillips p. 15,5. 16, 6, translation p. 77 note. Elia of Tirhan 

20 37, 1. 23,4, 18. ZDMG. xxxii, p. 486, 16 &c. But Hebrews 5, 12 

a) Compare Duval: Grammaire Syriaque p. 70. Severus fol. 44a: £\Q^»i^> 

b) Compare Hoffmann: De Hermeneuticis &c. p. 61. 

c) Better Assem. Bibl. Orient, iii, p. 145 "expositio nominum". Comp. P. S., 
col. 1400. 


2* NOTES. 

(Payne Smith col. 1853) = axoiyeta. r^&ci&K' = OToijrsta (Stein- 
thal pp. 125. 248). Dionysius Thrax 9, 2 ypajxfxaxa 8e Xeyexat oid 
to YpafXfxat? xal Euafxal; xoTtooa&ai . . . xd oY aoxd xal axot^eia 
xaXeixai oid xo lyeiv axoiyov xiva xal xd£tv (comp. Grafenhahn, 
Geschichte der Philologie 1843, i, p. 441. Steinthal p. 552). 5 

3. Fully r<L»<iorxi nclLlsxsj -iaAi Wright, Catalogue &c. 
p. 1168. Compare the authorities there cited, and Elia. of Tirhan 
32, 19. 37, 14. 22, 16. 24, 24. Bar 'EbViya i, 196, 16—20. 246, 18. 
ii, 7, 3 (where the book is called rCJoasix. rtLxto'ica), B. 0. i, 477. 
Bar 'Ali in P. S. col. 1535. 1948. Bar 'Eb h raya, Chron. Eccl. i, 10 
290. 294. 

4. This passage is cited by Martin, Journal Asiatique 1869, 
p. 3. Comp. Bar f Eb b raya in Lagarde: Praetermissorum libri duo 
248, 26 rdl'iurCo rtxx^ cuocn n^soSuK' K^Jto.i ^isar^i *».i iuK' 
r<*i"«\>K' jZa ocn KlliMK' rc^n^ rdlxA rg\rt .r^ll.t -^i^sOK'15 
Comp. similar enumerations in Hoffmann: Opuscula Nestoriana 
10, 6. Derenbourg: Manuel du Lecteur p. 11. nai bs ^3 pm 71 
•nriK ik "^ont: is i3*i7 ik ^v is ti»k p«b d^3 miitjbn bsi nbi*3E 
rvmtfcn bs iron (?) -an* is. 

5. Ae:jt<; comp. Aristotle's definition. Lersch: die Sprach-20 
philosophie der Alten ii, p. 260. Steinthal, pp. 230. 285. The Syriac 
version of Dionysius uses in this sense the word rC&cuison^sa 

(comp. P. S. cols. 246. 1948. Elia of Nisibis p. 26, 21). Ms. Sachau 
226, fol. 43 a = Uhlig 22, 4. 

Ai^ic, eoxi fiepo? eXa^iaxou cm&uK' pj rC&ajisor^taa 25 
xaxd aovxa£iv Xoyou caja-^oi.i iVAno^-i t^ 1 — > 

6. The source of this seems to be Jacob of Edessa (ed. Wright 
p. 2) Ai^so rtLsn^azt OrC >.-|28 &v»r^»idv K'inSol ,«. r y*»«»i r«d 

a) leg. "WO = "WO ZDMG. xxv, p. 116. xxiii, p. 526. 


oco.i rdi»c^ r£^ix..i eauio oco .^scVi rdaactjo r*b\Qsn*j\ 
^OcalSO ^A*rC* rOittrCl rC'cV\CUz*jlx-=>3 ^ OK* ->xU».T 
£ual ^00! ^isorC ^jjjl&jlsqo \ crxs.i r^Aw-irxna p£=>"ix=» cna 
-2» rC'acn n±\ rdl'iured ^»ea\ . *«*i\t^wo .eK*rC^»i<V\ r^llo 
5 • nt'.icn ^»caA iurV v«_\^ r*l\ .K'cVg&cc'.i Kliixi.1 rc^a^ic^ 
i^lu\oA .30 OK 1 rdiiwrc'.l r*&CU=alx£)9 pa ^CVJcn •=>!"<* rt^K* 
^j-^y cVurt^cn-isa .1^ kV&^b. Bar 'Eb h raya i, 193, 20 rcdcc* 

.r<xi^..v rcisaJLoi 01^ .rdil^cuao rdiLm .r<*cVu^\ rdJLa^ £a .ims 

Kiocn r^s'w.T. pn K'cViajsalxso arc'. 

10 • 7. As regards the number of the letters of the alphabet the 
native grammarians disagree. Later, the attempt was made 
(Martin, Journal Asiatique 1872, p. 321) to equal, even to over- 
reach the number in the Arabic alphabet. Bar Zo'bi counts as 
many Syriac letters as Arabic, Elia of Tirhan (36, 18 ff.) thirty 

15 (comp. transl. p. 51 note 1), Bar 'Eb h raya (i, 194, 5 f. 212, 19) thirty- 
six. Bar Zobi, after having spoken of Rukkak h a and Qussaya adds: 

fol. 80 a. ^Acas $v»rc* rdii^CU >\ rdisa.i ArdxJ=»3 ^*.i Tire ^j^ 

T2a_u ^.jAoq.i rtL^stcti.ia rtf*i rem.! rfcVajL^i&jKjSQ f^<Vi&\ 

Mcaa &v*rc* ^u'i&xcu f»icVi .«!i&gd cn&\al ^uijsarf .rC&\ocV\r<' 

20 a) >irfctaai:i vynC* CUcb r£li<W* i*^ .tm . . rdai rtliucn ^\— M 

.rc'&vu^ rc&o&rt'* rdlxirw vyrf .pt'Au-.icuao K'^oA^K'.i rdlLx^a 

.rdllicxfio rdxxls &ur£i rdxsao rrtnsox. ^cicL^A .nMamo 

•aci^lcWsa KlA rda^oia pcLul-cvd rCocn &u»A »_r<^ AJ^jsa 

.rdaAjj ^Jta rdauLuo b) .nd=>r^ r »© rdssne' ^j* rdinC rC'acn 

a) Compare Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. xxx. 

b) Comp. P. S. column 4. 'Eb h dok h os fol. lb: .rfjll-rj.l Pwirjc* .arC 

rcSnCL^ ^S»3 CO rtSrC' .rdJ.liij en r£=3*f. Margin: rdii^A rsirV 
QOaVCLSQ rdsre. On the upper margin: rci=>r<' v=> US»3rC*o\5Q.l >OVS0 


4* NOTES. 

r^, ii\n i*\ fc f^A\oA\K' .^Aco vyt^.is r<$ua'iuK'.l rt&VLO s) n£aY*»ci 
. JL.i *Acn vyr^ .KVocu cAa ^jjr^nC&oAxK'^A'iiaG ^ixnsa.t ^Acd 
r^^i»\o K$uxa2>A ^..loxsxj.i ^ &\»f< KYaOJ ^*iit ^».i ^u» 

K'^oxuAjooa k'^cuoxxj^ .cacv^uK' rdivuK* c£aiA\a* 

^.izuu ^o £ Av*=j ,aca gi Ttrw •j^s -A^sa .rC^uia.1 
• J3-T=ci .As^na infip.i .\raq\o ius »©cp ^A^'i^aa .^^axo 
AK* rcArC' .*iiio r<"ocn i&^xsao Ktaco r£iix&\2a .icuAs cA 
rdiz\l K"oco .aiu KWl\fio r<Vaiv. 

With this compare Bar 'Eb h raya i, 212, 19: r«&\l£. ^ur^ ^»i& 
CTx.AuK'^aj rf&i^AK' .K^vojlzmO K&^ArC' .rducoao K^^ai* 
r^i^uae vyrf .K'i-auap »_co_r^eaJ rf&to&rCLs »*3n \ y -rax »eb 
K$Ax. . . . «_OJL.i£i&\i nci-sn r^jsoa. r&isa.i enact .rdTiur^ 
T**i * «" Kla_a_l b WA,nL.0PO K'&jd-i »cb ca-»£i_»nc' K'cWjaXjj 
^& &v*xricSrc'ct iA.n cK^i^c** cAr^ v\*=l^- v\ia^. t cn2ax.:i9 

Killsasw %« rCi*— => rd\ K'i&ax.o tViajaarj.i rC^icuafls. 15 

8. Compare Amira: Gramm. Syriaca, Rome 1596, p. 7ff. 
where this passage is to be found, almost word for word; comp. 
further what the Arabic Orthoepists have written on this subject: 
De Sacy in Notices et Extraits vol. viii. ix. Wallin ZDMG. ix, 
p. 18 ff. xii, p. 599 ff. Zamahsari, Mufassal p. Ua and for the Hebrew, 20 
Derenbourg, Manuel, p. 18. Harikma of Ibn Gannah (ed. Goldberg) 
p. 5 ff . Dikduke Hat'amim ed. Baer and Strack p. 6. 

9. Ms. B has .* .00; but j» is reckoned among the sibilants. c) 

r^ .onsax. K'acp ^.dx* oa r^&uxaso iuso aIc*' a>$v&a 
,ia£>r<' tCDOar^ >Up rdSOX. &CUOXa >^o\ A 6^.^. The passage 

& from the 'Ausar (')raze to Math. 27, 16 (ed. J. Spanuth, Getting. 1879, p. 63, 14). 

a) Comp. £1. Tirhan 34, 4. 

b) Comp. El. Tirhan 37, 10 and note 1. 

c) f<£uiaHxJ28 rf&ofor^ comp. np^lttfrl nww Harikma, p. 6, 13. 

NOTES. 5* 

The order of the letters according to their pronounciation shows 
that wau and yod h are to be read here. Bar'Eb. h i, 195 (comp. 
Zamahsari, 1. c.) oo vyK 1 K&odJV ^»&ri£i ^cu\euo orf, comp. 
Wallin, ZDMG. ix, p. 38 (wp^i-f ^j^); Briicke, Beitrage zur 
5 Lautlehre der arabischen Sprache, p. 36 ff. 

10. Elia seems to have a sound in mind similar to the French 
"son mouille", comp. Duval, Gramm. Syr. p. 24. The Arabic Ortho- 
epists reckon J to those letters, pronounced through the tip of the 
tongue being laid on the upper teeth (Wallin, ZDMG. ix, p. 18), 

10 which are called £ji}jj\ ^j^\ (Wright, Arab. Gramm. 2 i, p. 4). 
Stade, Hebr. Gramm. p. 61. Harikma p. 6 ■ptrfsfi nxpB *nabn s*Ta 

11. Bar'Eb h . enumerates but three. To sin he gives a separ- 
ate place with yod h . Compare Notices et Extraits ix, p. 27. 

is 12. Bar 'Eb h . 1. c. ^Arib rdix. £n c^o r&kA **i ; com- 

pare Briicke, p. 47. 

13. Bar 'Eb h raya i, 195, 24. 

14. Comp. Jacob of Edessa ZDMG. xxxii, p. 485 : K"i&fi0 ^-.t>. 
Lagarde : Praetermissorum libri duo 204, 8. Klud Jiisa Elia of 

soTirhan 4, 20 (transl. p. 7). 

15. Harikma p. 6 nrttt nbtaa Toob T\sv\ orvby rwp *0 JTi 
a ha [ninn] T*xn i«pb nrw xn» wwie nwrm t«; compare Elia 
on the same page, 1. 18. 

16. Harikma p. 6, 4 iiKSYo iw inn (gj**) nnan mnpjn qbam 
25 b) tnan rwn» baa pirn ini\ ZDMG. ix, 20: ^sg* J^l pX*! 

^LXj (W&Jt gUs?^ v^gfc& M f-;^*^' ^5' <*** o' iA*-*-M 

a) See also Bacher: Abraham ibn Ezra als Grammatiker, p. 46. 

b) Notices et Extraits, ix, p. 16 U> JX«JI Jjl ^ '♦j-^j *}*«" U^V» 

6 * NOTES. 

OjysJI »J>Lo ^ ^K LJ uiLoJt (jX3 LojI yJJt v_>3^> 

Comp. Steinthal p. 589: Apollonios meint auch, dass die Buch- 
staben eine bestimmte und verniinftig begriindete Reihenfolge 5 
(xa?iv ev Xoytp) haben, der gemass das avoran geht, das j3 folgt. a) 

17. Comp. Sevems fol. 35b. rdJLu ^_»i&A ^_*.i r?b\'6b\r< 
•. b) QafM».l n£x.Ot r^fni ^A.»r<Ao >a\ nC^uAA .QcuouAsi ^l^&sa 

c) rC^vulo (fol. 36a) rdiicu &v*=>:t rV&uAji ^Asien.i rV&\CV°vinl-3 
nd^-VJLi ^o^r^O .» .OO .rV .»-»ax»&\. K* AA^i r<L»lCU» £x_is 

.^SuaJ ^AcrA 

18. Comp. Amira, p. 34 f. Hoffmann Gramm. Syr. p. 89. The 
fourth question and answer in the Dialogues of Severus show so 15 
much similarity with our passage, that I allow almost the 

a) Comp. Fliigel: Grammat. Schulen der Araber. p. 39. Bacher 1. c. p, 55. 

b) Read QO*3J».1. Martin, Histoire de la Panctuation 1875, p. 73. 

c) Comp. the definitions given by Amira (p. 31) in the name of Dawid h Bar 
Paulus. Arist. Poet. Bekker, p. 1456: 

rc*„\ n ^_*caAo ^»caisn ^xjcn.i 

6s to ,,eta * P o* P o^ xaO' aoro ^ ^^ ^^ rdJL^OX^ 

cert oe cpiovrjev jiev avev> i:poa- 
PoXtj; Ifyov cpuwjv axousrrjv... 5<ptovov 

r 1 


eyovtcov xiva (jxovirjv ^iYvO(i.evov axou- 

^ca^.lCuAa ^jjAXSO rcA.l Aa* 
vy.K' cdLb i\l=i a.> V*att »:bA 


Comp. further Dionysius 9, 7 and 11, 2 with aujxcptova for Aristotle's acpcova.. 

NOTES. 7* 

whole to follow here. Fol. 4 a. ^^ojk' r£saa> .r^.AViai ndirtfcxx. 
cdicn rdxAa .r<\=*JG r^cnsuA iv.r^.1 r^\CUa**t&£c».l r^auiia 

.KUai© .rdajat .rdl&cn ^tHo&os.l .&\&x.:i ^isartfa .rd»aaa> 
5*_jAco •:• r^ n «ai % o . r<\- <~Jk-G .K'-ooiO .(sic!) KLu&v&Q 

^30 K'.-u* ,cnolx. A.r£v. t^A.i kSm Aag •:• rdWsaso.i k'^cusj.i 
,cnoiv»r^ **.l r^kat .rtlAx. rc'io^tSJ .K^CU^-»l£\&\sn iv*X. ^Acn 
,cnaAv»K' -j.l K*— =>"i .r^crAt^i .cdo .A© .>.irV.l .10 K' vyr^ 
lO.K'crAr^i rf vyc^ .Kii&iA .r^salu.t o»o a) rt!iVT.T<^ aIp^ vw*^ 
vyK* r<U <-^»© .r^JO*.llo .rC.T.K'.T .1CU vycf r^.*Ti» .Kl^k-T ^.o 
.kSculo rfioJ.l © vyrf r/n'wvo .rdiOAire'.io •_©»<'•'' oo 
^_..1 i*V - -» " .^i °t nS ©oA r<n*Tl \ e r<U-^-3 .^.iSoA b \n:no 
.rdi&cb ^oax»i\*r<' rCSsxiioAi ^_aoai»i ^.s c) KLi»i'.T» .i©aA 

re'lai .rOL&cb Kl^»\^<K=xn nrfur*' ntffco&K' ^S9 AaA (fol. 4b) 

.SO Sua A*A ^2» ."U» ^9Ui».l K'wocu ^iA\ e V.T^OA Auagk' 

£u*&A >xJ»[A\]Aca.i .t*» K'vncu ,cnoAurC ^».i KUrajj .&v*»&\A 

20 rdnrzijfc. :oo ^sa A^A ^a-ioe&^vsii r^vacu ^-».i r*^. ,-a* Mflj ^? 

19. Comp. Accurensis, cited Payne Smith. Col. 409. 

20. For the terms AaA.i rdxx. and &u*&A.i rdlxx. compare 
the excurse of Hoffmann, Opuscula Nestoriana, p. xvi. 

a) Comp. Payne Smith, col. 409. b) Ms. .0*1.1. 

c) Bead. r^Jk-H-.; comp. Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 440. 

d) Erase! e) Compare Duval, Gramm. Syr., p. 75. 

8* N0TE8. 

21. Comp. Amira, p. 32. Elia of Tirhan 21, 7; 22, 20; 30, 3: 

33, 1 1 &c. Arabic tfLssjuo vj^a. and SjS'L* o^a. Wright, Arabic 
Grammar 2 , i, 9, Rem. a. Hebrew: n^3 tilX and fiTO m». Comp. 
Bacher: Die Grammatische Terminologie des Ibn Gannah, p. 17. 
r<l^.o»=X5la.=nyi:n J e hud h a Hajjug ed. Nutt (Two treatises &c, 5 
London, 1870), p. 4: rvpmsn -pa rem ?Dn rrma i#; ibid. 15 wrai 
mnn sntxo nnxn ro urn itsx turn nysn rvwn; compare p. 131. 

Elias of Tirhan (21, 13) uses r<&\CiX±»\b\baa for ocufioa!^ 
(r^&l&aa), for the different pronounciations of the letter a (ibid. 

34, 12), and for the interpunctuation signs (ibid, transl., p. 6, 10 
note 3) comp. Duval, Gr. Syr., p. 146. 

22. For rf&udou^ 7* Elia of Tirhan (36, 16) t&axx&Aoo ^, 
Bar 'Eb h raya (i, 194, 6, 11) k'&uax.Hx. K'comp. Hoffmann, Gram. 
Syr., p. 151. Severus (Payne-Smith, col. 755) makes use of our 
expression; see below. For K^xJoAooa^Aoa K'comp. Duval, p. 395.15 
Payne Smith, col. 1610. Bar 'Eb h raya (i, 208, 25) uses rd\ Ik 
r^&uax.Hx.. According to Hoffmann (loc. cit.) one can say: k* 
K'& For rtb\ % 1 t 'jx» r^ cf. JLo^ft ^Jr 5 * Mufassal, 
p. U4, 5. obvb BTOTO "jH m» niXfi iKth. Derenbourg, Manuel, p. 31. 
M e nahem ben S e rug h uses: rviflhtt»n mTfiK. Bacher, Terminologie, 20 
p. 24. m>B5"Vfin rwnK, Harikma, p. 10; also O'np'tf Manuel, p. 19. 
rC&v»..i "Mwo^Avaa !<=.-= Jul. -J! o.v^vJI Mufassal, p. tvf, 2, 8. 
Fleischer, Beitrage, 1863, p. 106 niBolhn mwK Harikma, p. 10. 
ManueJ, p. 190, 23, 24. 

23. Severus fol. 9 a. K&ci£tr^ ^irf ^A.K' r^&uxtSOM KAntfcut.25 
rC&uiaj&a^&oa ^Lrtfct Kfa'i'nm\. The answer follows our text 

word for word until K'j-i^-.t r^&vJLs-akf&Q&i&vsa i. e. inclusive the 
passage on rdl&cvso &uin«sa Acsa. Severus, however, divides differ- 
ently into rdV^cAcvsocC^rc' ^so.i ioa .rdix.icvsA.1 vyrc* fosa 
rcA^cuao &v&io±a Avsa; though the expression r<u^.i &oo does not 30 
seem quite strange to him, for fol. 10a we read: .»*:u> i jAV ,)*aX 

NOTES. 9* 

^ocaisa &u^a K'onoax. ^Acn Ax, r^cuaaaoi &Ax ^>.t *& .»*i\ 
^iSdaoarCo cb:ux. vyn^ r^ensuct *W<S\i,nii*ai nC&o&K' .a\c*A 
.icu ^aaA (Comp. Jacob of Edessa ed. Wright, pp. 4b. 5b). In 
another part of the Dialogues (fol. 41 a) Severus speaks of the 
5 same subject in a somewhat different form. Fol. 42a, bottom, he 
proceeds, nearing Elia of Nisibis again: oA tar*' iiX rdjcun 
(fol. 42b) r^&cux^iAi&csa.i W°A ucu. 30 .rc'AxcusocvK' c£iaA 

K&cra im,T7 .r<!x-UCt r^&Ax rdla r<A-i r<Lx.m Kiln vvfiff rtf\ 


10 r^n\\ e\s.b*J»r< rtd.i rdax=L» Ot^ .rtaxx£\&i rdl b) «L«Lia ,*« 

.rtf&u:uiuaG .rtf&ux. ccaflo nAcv .Axi^ao . } >Vs^x.rdbo .A^a&ncfa.i * 

. c W&iocfAt r<\.i &v»K'ora-i^& oocp <xrscn_» K'&Ax .^»cojil2uai 
15 .ttfn rC-iax.© .rc'^cusn.Tixa oocp cense ^xco ^t^npr^\ft »!=» 
d) r<iAtvA^ln£30 .»snoi=».i ,o \^AorA tfocn ix-rC rdlOlo cAo 
rdA.t rc'.-iix ^-ao.i vup^o .AurtLajoo rdlo •. ^m»jsg r*Aas 
rtArf .(<uiOD nA.i ^-Ucn •^O^iK' »oqp ,Afi»o&id\r^ .r<iOUii 
KL.CV-MJao rda^eAeoscA^r^o :^&fioo&d\r<' durdacuo ojik^s 
20 »in /tAoA^iKb »cn rcAx pa.i Ax. Ax ^sa.i .icu .^cn^\cuii^*w 
^iuilo ,.Ta^tx.r< r o .,fcc»T<to .>\soA>r<3 &un£i .icuo ^ftn»o 
^XuQ ocooiut* ^cn-ani ft) "WAuIlat i-»-\. r<&\\so -^- '-»cn 
rcLar^A^JB f) r£&a^A.i .qtfiQuA £usa ^A*ip Ax. n^AX»C09.l 

a) P. S. col. 1583. b) Bead rdxisu-l.l. c) Perhaps r£*\ar<&\ ? 
d) Bead without r^at the end. e) Delete the points! 

f) Supply 

10* NOTES. 

(fol. 43a) •:.* ) ^k.:i©ie» p'lWi rt^o^/iA ^nx rdir^AvxAarC.^Xu »jn^ 
AK 1 t 1 * 3 ^ t 2 ? .^t»fe ^VocaJ.i janZao r^^lv. >cnior<^ jQ-a?*.* 

^^xiw K'^vbaja rcisaxfltj.i Asa^usaa* ,cno Asa^rds Aurt'.i 5 
BarMalkoninhisp^vacu .l*.:i rtisnrten fol. 46b follows Elia: 

.ooi-M^l' ^a «ii& red vyao.i ocn ocp rCoum\o 
c) .otut«iar^ (ilil oca r£&&fl9a&&ca ^=>v=> jii^.i (fol. 47a) 

.rt'WAn!' r£ai\taa:i ^ixau\3 fc ^oA\t<' ^so© is 

.rf-nOQ."! Aire' vyrf r<2stbv±C\ r£i-»io £» 

*: .. \ i .. 

.aToo cuao o.ii.i ^,>.Ys> , 3 k'tjbo rtli=>o 

.r£sxux.i rfA ja region r6a^i».i ^tcnrsQO 
.relax, (sic) ^u ^..-u.1 JjArV© A^sa* QQ vyr^20 
.rtLx»ina cms col r^Lau^^ooo rdsaxaci ^caasoo 
.c£j , u»r<' JC/iaia re'r<\ajox .K'Av-iMrc'.t jaArf.i rtiUAc^ 

a) I fear the text is not quite in order here. 

b) Compare Phillips: A letter of Mar Jacob &c, p. 6, 5 ff. 

c) rdiJior*'? 

d) Above the line, e) There follows JIS0UCD3 which is crossed out. 

NOTES. 11* 

.rCiiasao K&a^HatO rdiLiK'o r^cwV^ Jt/io&l 


y««*nr OCD 

.►szjocnicv .^cu^rrti .».?a&vx~r& .»\jusaa »>lsa£\r£r:ia* vypc 1 

.flu fH,' v^r^O Ou ^»To vyrdzai ^ftj pax. &v*-u vur^ 
10 •. ^_5^flQia..1 rC^'idO? :UX.O ^.i=> ^Acno 

.^xir^ cv-o.V\ ^L»io fp* re^jc-io&lo 

Bar 'Eb h raya i, 209, 10. ^U^ ^x.ioal.1 ^.isarV r&iurrtt 

.* u -» ( 1 ftn ^ Jl»voo ...i&a^ *sp JSlCLbci rt^ ~ ^=sia t JU 'V 1 

.re'-nV&vx. a a cti **=>&v&, 

15 Ibid. p. 200, 21. b&zaL tW-aT.cuj Auci&sa ciu-ioAcala 

. -. : -if\ .aAr* pdJK' r<L=»^-=i:i vv*K* iuu r /°>ni ^Jl» ^^ 

Compare ibid, i, 13,16. Metrical Grammar ed.Bertb.eau 20, 162. 

Duval, Gramm. Syr., p. 175. 

20 24. Comp. Jacob of Edessa, Wright Catalogue, p. 1170. Bar 

Zo'bi, fol. 52 a: t^jLsncaoa ff'ui^ rfaaou. fp "**\* ?< ^ 1 ^ 

KI&aJl^ ^sp *&a^i&09.i KluiA^ ^- x -\. K'oosox. •:• ^ , -i^ T&>sq 

25 J» rtixMoxsno .pdJuid-t {=» rdLi*#oio .ndJiJaar* fp (^uvaao 
a) Bead _X*JJu»:». 

12* KOTES. 

Comp. Duval, p. 403. Hoffmann, De Hermeneuticis apud Syros 
Aristoteleis 2 , p. 197. Bar Zo bi in his Metrical Grammar, fol. 105 a. 

Ibid., fol. 113a. .^_cur^ ^.i^ rdsaz..! r<<'a 

,<<ai2kc\ ^oio rdfla^ct^ or* 
.c£J&u^»o *^u^ Auag<< 

With which compare the following from Dionysius: 

n . n t?*- -> *» Ms - Sachau 226, fol. 43b. is 

25, 3. Eiot] oe ouo, 7rpu>- 

Toiuuov xat TiapaftoYov, 7cpw- v v 

totuttov ulv ouv £<m to xata 

■rijv irpcfitijv Qeoiv Xs X 6ev, olov ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

Ttj, Ttapd T u> T ov 8e to «p' itepou ^^ ;CBn;| otia ,c«ok.neVd«:it, 20 

t^v yeveotv ea^xo?, °"> v ^ at " *« v^.f^'.TSOK'icsB re^w.m ,so 

TQtog. Comp. p. lxxxiv. *r^iaia .r^L^ir^o .rd^saxs.i 

oca vyr^ .^sn^ocaa ^ouha&tsn 

.rdi'Vcu .KliiLirC' : r£li2axa:i25 

25. Jacob of Edessa (Phillips, A letter of Mar Jacob, 7, 3) 
warns the copyist against this yod h . iu&or^Kbaxs .^as^u rd\ 

NOTES. 13* A»&U9a 01V Jfia<kr< ^utMr^.i ocb r£sncu:t t<ln b\\nsa 

This rule seems, however, not to have been strictly followed. 
5 The word was written with yod h e. g. 'Ap h rem, i, 100 C. and without, 
ibid i, 392 B., comp. Bar c Eb h , i, 203, 3. Bar 'All in the Gotha 
Ms. (ed. Hoffmann, No. 1967) has yod h . The Christian Palestinian 
dialect writes .LsadiK' ZDMG. xxii, p., 461. Duval, Gram. Syr., 
p. 59. Severus in note 23. 
io 26. This is the punctuation in the Mss. The form, however, 

does not agree with the rule here given. One expects 'Antiok h (i) 
for which I have no example. Payne Smith col. 266 gives 'Antiok h . 

27. For both forms comp. Payne Smith col. 412. Bar'Ali ed. 
Hoffmann, No. 1670. Merx, Gram. Syr., p. 118. For the other 

15 examples see Noldeke ZDMG. xxii, p. 464 note. Syr. Gram. p. 25. 

28. Comp. Gesenius, de Bar Alio et Bar Bahlulo, p. 19, n. 32. 
Wright, Catalogue of Syriac Mss., pp. 103a, 107b. Bar 'Ali ed. 
Hoffmann, Introductions, 9. EliaofTirhan 18,11; 19,14; 28,16&c. 
Bar 'Eb b raya, ii, 38, 6 comm. comp. Talm. Bab. Sabbat h , fol. 63 a, 

20 and especially Kiddusin fol. 49 a imisa pIDfi DVinon** and hereto 
Schwarzauer contra Geiger, Zeitschrift, v, 246 in Orient. LB. 1843, 
667 (to which Dr. Steinschneider kindly called my attention). 

29. From «^aso &v*m to the end of the paragraph published 
by Martin, Journal Asiatique, 1872, p. 459. 

25 30. The passage in the ed. of Phillips, p. 7, 13 reads: rdl 

.JLu .ti'gi ar? fXu ^*ia one* jk^f<\ n» ^l» t*r>^> •^?^ J 
.|Aco vyr^l K'^vu'iwi^ fAoa <xrt -'A»» »*ia oref .^u» ^iso 
.^us^i .^isan^i ^Acn K'caatx. ^aa .-^t»H& ^ocai.i i<xx*w< 
visL&*:i rdi=j\.i ^Acn rcd-ab ^ano .^tin >^ui=i .jUrw .^ix» 

a) Levy, Targ. W.B., ii, 319. 

14* NOTES. 

.Juan .Juis .Alisa .Juixi . V n . - Comp. Bar'EV'.i, 209, 11; 73,25. 

and Severus in note 23. 

31. Does Elia mean the Christian-Palestinian dialect? See 5 
the Evangelium translation published by Count Franciscus Minis- 
calchi Erizzo (Verona 1861 and 1864) and the fragments in Land, 
Anecdota, iv, pp. 177 ff. It is generally so called; see Bar 
'Eb h raya in 'Ausar (')raze ed. Larsow, p. 3b, rg'&ui^ttA * K'&vmxm 
k e t h ab h a d he semhe, 205, 24 a) ; comp. Wright, Catalogue, p. 984b. 10 
Noldeke, ZDMG. xxii, p. 527, sJsjJa^JjJl As regards the 
matter itself compare ibid, p. 470: „Wir haben hier Zusammen- 

ziehungen, namlich, in den drei einzelnen Fallen ; sonst 

stets getrennt." 

32. Bar Zobi in his metrieal Grammar Ms. Sachau 306, 15 
fol. 113b (cited by Hoffmann, de Hermeneuticis &c, p. 62, from 
Ms. Petermann, 9, fol. 12 b.) 

.r*fbxsncuSo iua k^ 20 

.rdilxoi AAn ^»&n£t.i 

.K'^vaocoa .tsai ^jairc'.i 
Severus, fol. 12b: ^^cn-.Av-.K' Klusa .r^^uiu^L Kllr^ax. 

^o.Td {lSU:i r^xci&K' ^»cn*&v»r^ r^A\lsisn ^lai^nr^o rduoA 

.99 rd*ooa .vw .rdsax..! K'&VASa.ii) r^&a&red ^^tsoo nCensax. 

a) Comp. Metric. Gramm. 

NOTES. 15* 

.A .O .3 ..=3 •S^a'lK' **3 ^»on*&i»K' .K^AAQi ^S.nclu.1 (^J\0«(< 
.rdi&on K'cnSOx. 70.1x1 ^.1 <AibJ Aur^Tii'v ^'ie^ea.i 

Our chapter follows here word for word until p. 11; 11, with 

only this difference, that the passage on the two cases which are 

5 used with verbs is placed at the end; ibid. fol. 30b. K'&tliba ^k* 

.iLn .r&ttva.l vyK* K*£\*iflai^ .^ ^ja'ir^ r£sax. A^. ^t^..i 

vyaK* . rC'ivj-ii>Jbh.o .rdxi-uA vyK" ^>.i r^ivsoetu *.^£uapo^ 

.Aa .1 .fcAoo ^0^.1=9 .rC'^iojoori' ,cb ,r<xii=jo 00 .rdxlion 

.cK»cu>:i r£L»t< r^Jya ^Ardi. r^cosax. Aa A^. .ia. jaO&i 00 

10 vv»K* '. &Advi jso^> ivaK'a .^Lrel^. »_»cV-i^\.i Kls^.K' «30<h k*r<Ci 

KLa-K' .=>oA» AurC'o .£\A&C i<LlAi rC'co r^ ne'oalK'.Ta 

ijsaK'Aw Ki-iVAr*' (fol. 31a) •. cuoia Arils*. ^tcn^^aiK'n 

.icuA ^Ar<l2k. ^»&n&\ f».t K'itxi^j Aik. .a \ y t < \ . u . -i ,io K'crAc&a.iXct 

,*as^.i ok' 0^0 K'^iaooK' >aoc\ r^b\*.i t» i \ ^ ^Acn ^n 

15 With Severus compare Bar l Eb h raya, Metr. Grammar (ed. 

Bertheau), p. 28, 1. 247 ff. k e t h ab h a d be semhe 41, Sff. George Karms- 
eddin (Payne Smith, col. 450) follows Elia closely. It is a pity 
that the Syriac text of Karmseddin is not given more frequently. 
It would serve to show us the sources of which this Maronite 

20 made use a) . Compai-e Dionysius 31, 5: 

Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 44 b: 

Trcioaeic ovop-duov eial ■rcevxe' r^axsax..! »-«."i p^^v\ ^-ga A^=n 

6p6r), YSVUTj, OonxT], amauxY], r »eo*AuK'»<ua* r<axin.-| v^cC* 

s 4 , r*s « > .iur^^itfi i-*.i coco .. y-n » 

xA7jTix7j. Ae^iai oe Y) fiev J> ~ 

.A\_.r<JL=Jcix»cW=*> .cWxtLlOU^ 
4p0i) 6voh«oxix^ xdi £ 66sTa, .^^^^ .Av-^AuW 

25 7j oe yevixY) xtyjtixt^ te xai ^o^^A^cn <sb cYuK^ifc 

TOXTpiX^, 7] 8e 80TIXY] £7U- TSOKll JUnC* Vy K* l T<MX>Zn&UL2a 

a) Comp. Low, Arama'ische Pflanzennamen, p. 148. 

16* NOTES. 

otoXtixyj, ^j Be atxiaxixT) xax ^.i h-»rf I bo \ \^ •:• r^Lx-iva 
atxtaxixVjv, -?j Be xXyjtixyj Ttpoa- .«^«»T*a n£iua»tosi »aoa&uK' 

, „ , .rdijaoouao.i .t<XJn-=3.i e .i cucn 

ay/opeuxtxYj. Compare p. lxxxvn. ^ 

is9f<saX.i KLisaonuivsa <<*wt. 5 
j_».i &-»r<L*&> \ % •:■ rdxjk iaA 
^sa .Klxiiss .T2»3Kla Jtir^ vyK* .cdi&vLx. r£sn-x. ,cna&x^f< 

. a) jt_ia»j Kilo .\i\n*n >\no rc'oosot.i 10 

Ibid. 67,3 on the pronoun.: Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 48b: 

xxtoaet? Trpu>xoxuirou jxev 6p6Y]<; «<*l»ax. orC p» rf&Xa&sn 

ooxixy); efiot ooi 01, atxiaxixTJ? t^ j^ ^ ^.^^^5 

e{xe oe e, xXyjxixyjs oo- irapayu>- .4".^* AuKHaca**co .ocb.i 

ytov Be e|xo<; aos o;, yevtxY]? .•» jj».i iv»r<liiu^. .©col .vy 

ejxou oou o5, BoxixTJs ejjiu) au> r^' 1 <-»* °^ xca aea - =s -^ 

to, aixiaxixrk eaov aov ov. ^ . . . 

Compare p. xciii. A, ocjA ^ ^ 

The national Grammarians designate the cases with the 
following expressions: 

c^vAa^sa, rc'AAaso^ (Bar 'Eb h raya, i, 42, 16; ii [ed. 
Bertheau] 30, line 259), Hoffmann, de Hermeneuticis &c., p. 191=25 
irxuiais (Steinthal, p. 260) pi. rf&CL&Jsn Payne Smith, col. 450. 
Dionysius in the passages cited above, Elia, of Nisibis. 
Elia, of Tirhan 19, 21; 24, 19. Bar 'Eb h raya, i, 42, 4. 

a) Comp. Elia of Tirhan 8, 25 f. 

b) Bead K'Ad&SO. c) Bead ^.erx.AuK'. 

d) V' AfiJ comp. Harikma, 7, 1; 10, 11; 12,2 &o. 

NOTES. 17* 

r?b&S&3 re&o&t* Bar 'Eb h . ii, p. 32 comm. Elia, of Nisibis. 

K'&uAa.i-a rc'AAaso Hoffmann, de Hermen., p. 59. Bar 
c Eb h . i, 40,25; 211,9-13. 

cC&i»i£., ap0pov, Duval, p. 406. Hoffmann, de Hermeneut., 
s 214, 35. Elia, of Tirhan 5, 14; 9, 12; 19, 21. a) 

rf-rj loo ^a»i*.vo, itpoOeaic, Severus, fol. 14a. 'Aprem in 
Bernstein's Chrest., p. 169; retaining tbe Greek word: 

^_oiA\it< apGpov, Elia of Tirhan 9, 12; 19, 21. Severus, 
fol. 14b, 39 a. Payne Smith, col. 403. 
io «y». Q^ V *S Textual*;, Elia of Tirhan 24, 19; 21, 9; 34, 8. 

Severus, fol. 39 a. Bar 'Eb\ i, 41, 19. Hoffmann 1. c, p. 199. 

r^&vAo.ia <to*floo\& Hoffmann 1. c, p. 59; or simply 
(Steinthal, p. 291). 

K'&ai^i&Aisn Elia of Tirhan, 8, 9. 
15 /A, ^;\\ .^ Elia of Tirhan, 8, 12; 24, 18; 34, 8 = xXioi?. 

Hoffmann 1. c, p. 199. Duval, p. 401. V r<\^= xXivuj. 

a) Bar Bahlul, Ms. Sachau 305: %sa vwn^ cti_»£\_ic^ ^-».1 K*dV»ix. 

.rdlicu rdixA.i ^>n r<S=aAcvx=j Kla-*"io-»o n&icu KluLa v^t^ 

,»^U3t JbUj r^Ls**.! r^ifiot^aifio with which compare Dionysius 61, 2, = 

Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 47 b: 

"ApOpov iffrl jiipo; Xoyou r.xw 

xixov, Ttooxaasoaevo^ xal uroxacrso- .. .. . 

[xevov TTJi xXCaea* x«Sv 6vofi.dx.uv, ^^^^ ^co^i^, >:uo 
xal eaxi rcpoxaxxixov piv 6, ouoxaxxi- vy,^ KLm*5X>£\&09 .»> cdiiioa 
x6v 3e 8?. Comp. p. xcii. rKLfciioflo >sa .* c^kiCU r^lT,\r>.t 

reiicu r£ix\:i ^.t cdaAaja o&o 

(The last two lines to be corrected, ace. to Bar Bahlul.) 


18* NOTES. 

rCcW^AoocKi nf b\Cib\rt Payne Smith, col. 1610. 

Elia of Nisibis, Bar Zobi, Severus, and Bar 'Eb h raya in 
his metrical Grammar 32, 285 (ed. Bertheau, p. 28, 1. 28; comp. 
p. 101) reckon but four cases — Elia, of Tirhan, however, (8, 9; 
comp. transl., p. 29) and Bar 'Eb h raya i, 40, with Dionysius, five. 5 

33. Bar 'Eb h . ii, 35, 389. (Bertheau 31, 280.) ^ Anc*o .ilaa 
h^r< ii«re* rdso.^K' .Kl\Ai .tjgcH Kil-sb Aa* Anf »_jAod ~sn 
j^v. A .atr^K'& cars .iajwi Elia of Tirhan (15,8, 10), however, 

speaks of all four b e d h ul being used before verbs — and before all 
of the seven parts of speech; compare Payne Smith, col. 450. Withio 
what Elia of Tirhan (20, 15 ff) says of :t before verbs, comp. Bar 

Zobi, fol. 52b: cVAsa.i cd\ja eHia ^JiL'eksj .=>ocV\ r&a ^aa 

tasrcT $\A:i .rt'eWl&sa ^<Wi& rtdia Aj*. ^IrtliL i*^ .1* .rdsox. 

jtir^ vwK* .r£A_SO ^kicn ^»cicn r£20JC cvJlsq ^m\»ob .t^olci r^iirf 

.^Acn &i .^Acn vwr^.1 .ix.© i»r<':i ..ia^..iA^l isoptll 15 

(fol. 53a) juK , vyK > .^»CTL>^.r^r<^ax. eW\sa £\a^ C\r^ K'Av&cVicULS) 
A\y^o j_,cn*cVurc' "U\^ rctsox. .Acix. . ji_».i\ ..x*=» .oi^ i-=a»<i 
^ori.Av.rc' ^..i rfcVvLs) .^ra.iasa rCzix. A^.o .^xvQU rctsox. ^fi.i 
~»cuio9 rdLato rfcScunvna.i A^=*>. Comp. Dionysius 60, 1 -= 
Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 47 b. 

Mexo)(Vj eaxi Xe£u; [xexe/ooaa cn_>&u»rc' ^-»n K'A\a-a Axojc 
xtj<; x&v pY]p.dT(i)v xai xfjs xuiv ps r^saxxi&ca.T r^&cu"i=»rc'A\£?3 

6vo(xdxu)V iSioxTjxo?. Comp. re i_^o«<L_»i ^ oei3^\<xA«..i 

p t xci. .rCca-'Sojcio 

34. Severus. col (<Ax^9.i rdsarfi w» p^ .r^W sasaa rfr\*** 

rCcWLsk^al. He gives no further examples. Read with Bhere (,) zaza. 


NOTES. 19* 

35. Read with Severus Ar^ccoz..i r<L3&i&s — although I can 
not find the place. The examples which Severus gives are very 
corrupted: (read *ri"\— ■ft'*) v\\\\~ii\o Ar^osox..! KLa^iaja.i vy r^ 
r^aicuxa.iXo .AjJk.K'irs.ila (?) &\coa*.flos:tla (?) Aaso&vxa.ilo 

b (read r&'icun^a.iAo), which are partly to be found in Payne 
Smith, col. 451. The second example in our text belongs to the 

36. "In short" — comp. below. Bar Malkon, fol. 43 b. 
iVVin' n r^&iLsojs »ii\ Taix. durdiajaoo, Bar Zo'bi, fol. 52a. 

10 Kiln c&rso&o ^-.ico^ c£ko> (=isopdaa\ k'.tuoo Bar 'Eb h . i, 
23S, 36) nf.Ti c£-i-» "to be brief". Eusebius on the Star. 
ed. Wright, 10, 20. The Grammarians use the word re$ux9jao 
to denote the last letter of a word, comp. Severus, fol. 39 a, where 
the parallel passage inElia, ofS6b b a, p. 16, 3has r< l i&v»i»>n^r^i\o&>r*'. 

is 37.Arab.Jjij comp. Ibn Malik ed.Dieterici, p.rvl^^ ^^^1 

^5L*-J! J\ ^.Ajt}\ *fy£>. Hebrew: rrosbti T*n b* nnron robcim. 
Bacher, Terminologie, p. 19. 

38. Both readings are possible. Severus has ^xlat&csa. Comp. 
20 Bar 'Eb h . ii, 35, 315 (Bertheau, p. 31, 1. 277) &v_*-* ^dvi&o 

■ «W r«do ^'xcnAoo red ^l&SO rCvu^rC. 

39. cdx.<vi^. Comp. Hoffmann, Opusc. Nestor., o.i&o 
^T /\'i»\ ►A en; see Land, Anecdota, iii, 5, 3; 8, 14. Fern. 
'Aprem i, 280 F. Josua Stylites ed. Wright, 23, 4. ^o_^ur< rtlzcb 

25 Klx-oii KL.01J3 Causa Causarum. Ms. Sachau 180, fol. 82, col. 1. 
r<Lix,ic\& i»Av» Wright, Catalogue, p. 522 a. Bickell, Carmina 
Nisibena, p. 61, ^rel2.oi& ZDMG. xxxii, 487, 2. The verb, 
in the meaning "comprehend, understand" ZDMG. xxiv, 269, 9. 
Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents, p. 43 a. Bickell, 1. c. 

30 40. For rCiaca*.! comp. Bar 'Eb h raya i, 42, 1. ZDMG. 

xxvi, 833. Hos. 12, 2; the text there (also in Ceriani's edition) 


20* NOTES. 

has nd-ioforC, but the Hexapla (ed. Middl.) r£»Hofor< In this part 
of Lee's edition the rCixu^ of the Syriac Ritual are not marked. a) 
Bar 'Eb\ i, 41, 18 <tt.*-apg \ «\.i rd^ss t<\ x* .r*i\cvj_L*Js> 

r^AA&sa o»Ava=» .'ix.o *X3&\I.1= r<liAcno .KVdSOjA KiiSa.i.i K'Avb*. 

Ibid 239, 17. cdi ^loj^vA ^cucdo .to ivLi >lx=i r&&v».vi io 

&i»r£3CUo. Comp. ibid 234, 2. Payne Smith, col. 873. Hold., Syr. 
Gramm., § 4G. Bar Eb h . ii, 35, 317 (Bertheau 31, 1. 279 must be 
corrected) comment, ^ia c£i_^cn.! ^.xAcn ...jaic^ r£L»'-icC^au 

. i x\ .xjsa nak .rC^-»ii> r^JCUn vyK" KlAK* .{_i~u kUacd ^.i a\ 15 
ortfcA ^jujj&\& p£l .i^ {JL»io vn_»^rd*:ic\ ccA\l«ba:i actfcA; and 

so in the 'Ausar raze to Hos. 12, 2 (ed. Moritz) t<dx. .>xl*^ 
cu-.'icO^ficj vyr^ caj«£i°k£t r<lo octfn, which is opposed to the 
passage cited above from the k*t h ab h a d he semhe. 'Eb h dok h os fol. 41 b 
cites the passage from the 'Ausar raze. 20 

41. What Bar Zo'bi says on this subject is too long to be 
transcribed here. It covers from fol. 75 b to fol. 80a. He divides 
his material in 24 Kan6ne V) — a method of which he often makes 
use, and which he has in common with Jacob of Edessa. The 
whole makes the impression of his having used Elias as starting- 25 
point. (The first two Kanone are copied, almost word for word.) 
In regard to A he mentions him by name (see below). 

a) Elia of Tirhiin, p. 38 transl. "im I2 (en Capitel von Numeri". The citation 
was found neither by Baethgen nor t>y his critic ZDMG. xxxvi, 706. It 
is Num. 16, 26, with which compare Bar 'ElA i, 154, 2. (On r^-iXM^ see 
Wright, Catalogue, p. 103.) Perles; Melenmta Peschitt. pp. 22, 24. b) ol xavovs:. 
Steinthal, p. 68.".. 

NOTES. 21* 

Severus fol. 38 b. ^^Oip^ ^»ifo .KLax-cxosg ^*.i r<^a»oi:i 
.• ~j£sa±sx>&\b)tt ja\ A*A {Zp >jlcu3.i &vm&A ^p v^oi.i ^vBcd 
.1 .-^ .>A ..=» : QOASapo!^ .1*3 rf.icn ^x.KLu.1 rV&ci&rV A\*=i 

5 or^ .rdaV^sa K'&.mCVX. . . . - r^ivSaa-M .»<L*».t») <"^< «*iVl^ 
(fol. 39a) ..i .^a :^oforC j^jsir^.i .«^oi^\irc A\s-> rdx.*^ i*= 
.re'ia.irj ,r^i=L^=> .rf^ua^. ,^\Ar^ -^ijA .A >*- oo 
.rdJcdSkn .rfl.,»:u .K'i-a-^J .rfbuja* .K'^'irCivja .rc ^ . <\ , 0a . 3 k -3 
.rdsaiAO .K' .rclc».x\o .K'Av-x-aG .K'&x •a^ .K'^ifnc']^.! 

10 .K&a^.i&Ao ,r<l>]m\ .rtf&v&sA .r^i^rA .K$U^ .k£\Ga-CV=j&G 

Here follows the passage on a — see below, ^xk^sn m ^r?a 

cni&xa a) ^.*A\rf .1 Or*' G&© .rfivAx. rdaJ^.Air^ -\^-^ Jt»i=> 

AcSli-o .rffo.xnJ.ia c^SkAOriG rtL**at ^x.r£-»a . rf^ft. 'Nt n i a 

rd^iirvsa c«A .rffrAasn >cp:i (sic!) QocO^fio^ rf.-u* cmsa.Tn 

i5 ( -.o:ifoo ^_o:i^a ^^-SkcS' •rV-Sa-a.-ng on fc i» a>\ Jt>ia.i o* »ora 
r&Up «v».fv»«w\ jt,-ir3.i .& .rtl»aon ^^K*© .rtfjHAA Ar^ nd^-ipC* 

rc'^A^so 021=79.10 .ao .i reiocb omfwA «r»i=3.i p^Aao^p^ ^_j<to 
,i_ri m i t» %A jt_."i-=3.i ^i^.i b) «^oiAvir<' &A.-A >xa p^&iwcf 
)a\ ^_ctu..t^.io rc£33.ria vyre* (fol. 39b) ^^j^ .foo.t kA.i 
»A»rfa iOA- Av*a ^_cA^_Ano : ^j^.i.ia .=>o& 
vyrt* d WAvAx. ctiocn <Hifl?v\ Juia.t pt'foo&K' ^_Kto .^iSQ.i.T 
kAajo a oi^ fo .qoxoq&I Jt»i=>.n K$ ^^^o .r^Ul^.io 


a) Read rdoir^. b) Add the copula, c) Seems to be erased. h) There 
seems to be something wanting here. 

22* NOTES. 

Kisax. .^Sk&ca.i rCsa \ bi*r?\w\2a rteicnb\ cn^iu.i ^aa&\ 
•^\^ii» Av^i=>0 -xik'Ua vyira wyr^ ■AuKt.Tn'tq »"U» n^AaiX 5 
»x^ir_ v\ix.o .^.i^jj ..i^uo ^*.T3^. .in^.o i ^ a t^ . n\\ o 

•:• &v&i=> -vsi= .^vnia ^ v t > V > -m^V* 20 -jsto .'^xqau .r&.ioajj 

(fol. 40a) c) r<l\t\r» re^isa .rV&u^ rCAxx^i .r^v,i= .r?x*\2a 
c^ocp^ : .tcu Jaxnx >cbo d, ,"iax=a."i rV&o^K' *-^» <t£x*Vb 

vyr^ »JAa >vu& Klxu »^co A.:*. ■■Vi^Ap aoi\Q r^visin^ i& 
orV ^[^-aTUj ^oo icu rVcn^ i^.too .Sk\,»* ^^Kto K&JQortffcvx. 

r fAtnl .i ,c»A rCL^.ot.1 [r^A*]oA>rV ^J^A juts f<lx&^09 *2kO 

a) A repetition! See above. b) Comp. Wright, Catalogue 544b. Aprem, 
i, 99 A, 163 C. Elia of Tirhan 16,3, ZDMG. xxxii. 487.22. c) Bead nd^x\i? 
d) In tlie Ms. there follows K!~U., after which some words seem to have fallen 
out. e) K'fr u i i n a few more (examples)? f) Read ,1(V> r^.lCTJ J&JLi* 
OO r^CTJat. g) According to Grammat. Terminologie (Duval, p. 401; El. 
Tirhan, 12,6) this would mean; "with suppression of the tau !" The text is not 
in order. 

NOTES. 23* 

chusaxo.i »cba •^5^^ jcsojj '. ^Aoo ^n rf.T*» ofrltcoflA poicxxa 
poA or^ oi_»£v_»r<' r< , A\«\-*..oi r^&ulx. pa.To.iO .K'&xAx. r^ocpAi 
.K^vxixiSa a) ca*ioK' r^AviifipA t<'&ujl»&y& ^c\6\ OK 1 K^—Arsi 

5 .&vu&Aa .&\Aa .Aur^o .^^vjjiio .&v\nT.. .bona iiactfAvi rdiv^r*' 
^nS'o .^cAre'fiSa.Tt c£ATX.a vvia^Kto .vypn^Jtorcb .s^j^rc'a 
rc*£ux»ai oo orf .r<L^a» Ka.Vo £i»Tur^ po.uo JSpx rtffoaAir^ 
,^» ooi\ oW .ia_« OK* K'^^-*Ak' op*' .,cn 
,&>j*)0 .&%*» .A\CU» &i»Vu vyrC 1 .r^^ux^fial &v»r£2t&v£8 ,io 

10Q&u*r^ (fol. 40 b) rC'OOQj rC'&iLSO ^.IlK* d\Aa jdCUjJ .-=— J 
.r<^usJ^ rdiisasas irix..t r<Li=A reL^arsao .r^5sa\Av^ am 
T-^ .rc'ocp^ ^,a vWo .T-w^o ..T-^fl° o*^ n ? v a^aiso 
Anil^o reVi.Tuo i<U^.i r<l^\A& ©on r<Lao— ia> A^. r«'isar< , A\so 
n^v.iairC' ►ro . b Wi°>im KtnSax. i^x^oK' ^u'iui^ ^aAu^ ca&flaa 

15 ,cbo .r*£L^»t^£\2a.i r^JSO -\£\& d) ocb c) cn&\A oai\i 
.^.T3L5h.A>r<' Ar^ .tJ.'px .^3\. .&vi£L^. ^_\Ar^ .r^AvAl- Kbcndt 
b\ aai< .&.t\x» .Avi^do .oct*>rc' .^.TuK' .,ooo.Ta^- .^JO.tAV. 
rtisa.To r£a>a-i&. A^.a •• r^AAas f^&vilQnv^ i&\= rdlr<li..t 
&A&1 ops' ^^t-i^ drt" K'.TM an&vsi j\t<1^.0 .r&ai&.l rd^..lCOL» 
•:• cn& v n. x .' s q .v\A\TVfio .vv Avia^. »^wvr<' »txA >xa : ^^o^r^ 

20 a& »aA vy\i .K'Auuoaso , rtfcnAi .^ )o."vo.i t<b\a&\rt »^»^©> 
vv&via^ .cn^xico .vv&uAiao »to. But fol. 14a ff. Severus has 
our text word for word; as also Bar Malkon, fol. 45a. 

a) Read without alap h . b) Bead r^,* ^ ,nl. c) Bead CD&uaflol^i. 
d) Bead OCD.l. 


24* KOTES. 

r£*x~cu>o rC^Aoi.i rCvocu Aa*. rZxxxzau <<j\ 

.^l&i tu.tuo ..^cuk' .icujA ^»i^\ >jlcu30 v^oti 

.^.-%£l^. ^vxrao A . vA «sa liLcvoa &vu&A ^sa vn^cni 

.pOcujcA Aasj reLsali. r<li ndAo xzar* A\^* .t-^P 

.cdixn^a rd»uj oal paix. Aa.3 ^Hx-.t .xsgwo 

.r c*\ , -a & -La ^_ji p^-i-3_^ K'i-rj wy*^ cri_»"i_o r^&Vj-X-n^rt 

.eai&r£^l .Acua&o .K'ia^ .r^vxa vwrC r^2jii&\=a 
..^Asa ^Am A&» ^^siK* re'cnsox. To*oa 
.^AniLx. .icuxls ab\a &nHx ^».i rdlia Toxo 

.j*&i& cnu^jfK' Ast^i rdAx..i po.To ^rifa mil. 
.ccAr^-x. c n x b wo rc*acn& A^K* oatfln'A .x*."i ^_cCa 

■ r ^AnT . aaiiA cC-At.:! acniK'o r^vt aav.ois 15 

.«__fir<l\ .TuK'a ,cnAr<A isane'a isicC* r^J\AK' 

.^aix, r<A rdaA.i <A&93 cs&a (Mc*^ ^urfo 

.^»&vx,a r^&x.o r£o&v*:ia >x.cuur>S vyi< 

.^AjjL^m r*L*M ^Acna K'.lOcrx.o r^rCLssO 

.r^jAjAr^ ^^vi^ Qa&fiaaA >icvxa ^UA&sa ^_j^a 

.c^.tw rdJt Aa j£» or€ ^ob\ ar< ^*&A:i ^p 

..{ArxLx. e n .* 1 , ^, »cn r^ovt.Vx. i<! IjVj.t b) *-*crx_»cH_»_2»3.voG 

.^JXAT^zj i<lA cVA T»ck* Ore' OCD.i rctSsoA Aasa 

vv»rC* ^A 


.isnndj -ajch a^uccVvi f<s»3.i.Tr ..=©chch vypf ,-Ucna 

a) Eead ^2so. b) Read ^»CO&U£a:|jaQ. 


NOTES. 25* 

.ii&vx.&.ia «<n\o.i.ici .itU'.iMo .aoi\iiQ 

.. t 2uJbo^Av»j .icuA rdb» 0L»i=>.i Aasars'.i ..^o&iVa (fol. 45 b) 

.^iifica^ji rC'aviXiTOT t^oufiaa .Vnvn 

.A^&vooA* Ar^ .iCl^al .JL..-icSa .^a^-r^H r^Jv^rC 

,^Laab\b\ ona c^Au»3 r^TSLSa J&lr<^a ujiK' 

.i^.&\fl0fV ^sp AK 1 i^.&\aua .jx.nK' .ja^.TJas i^ace'Ai 

."ix-.i ^iaxa A>o^ .^--V ^sa j^..tA\o .^^a 

.< V , i rn's a Ts.lrt' vviK* coi^va rdL*»^«^CJ3.i Aa\ 

.&v&a.i^> {=» K\i4» rV-i^&vsa oaijaa&\ >lax3 ^j^o 

.rdaLt^^r^.t r<*.T*» r<ilx.l >TflO K'^uit. i£\=> 

15 .K'&v&^i.'M c&t&cas.ia .^s-J^rt' . a) A\A\jja Aoin vyK* 

..Tm.IO &Vki^g0.l t<S3X. aLu ^a^ptf' oral c£2lxU&\2*].i 

. ^uT i yra Oco cal Kilx.^ crusa.lxa.ia o*~»t^>A\ «^_r^ 

.^.TOlL vv^cu .^vt^flo .*cno.T3CLs»-.l .AvnxoJi rdlv^K* 

20 .jU\ &u&u ob^itjcs K'&Oaal rc*<\ni oivi ^..10 

.^^VM au=ar£so -rg*Airt.i-«r»^ K'&cCLl 

.^»i& axuVo Ki^o—iA >=a.Ta.i r<bu. .,5\V*»1 >2kr< 

a) Bead WOVMJ. The verse wantB one syllable. 

26* NOTES. 



.'^cntaijo co^(<L3 op*' cn&uxajj v\Avt^. .frvjja f . 

.Av.rC^vA^ rd=^=) rcdsu »co ArA ^."1 rtl& 

.^VtrdutxaO ^v»K1aav=oo ^1 Aur ^\iT°k 

. c) ^aj»o K'ioivko r*SV^* r&L iyr* fa ^v»r r # \it°k 5 

.&v&*.io .r£x&io .pixaa* rda vyrt' ^.T Aurt^isn (fol. 46a) 

.rdiLxiao .r«laotO rdax&x r£& vyr^ £\*KjJtn2aa 

.r&Lsnxa ox»jw.i^.i kAoo K'.icrA rdaaxo ouAo 

.^xlcrA.t wyr^ Ao.13.1 .JiAtr^ erA ^'i^a rtfA 

.»<-' ^a^uoco K'&OUfia&.i vyK* ^AO.'p r^'Ar*' 
.»\*« ^crA^rs Au20K*a ..iiAxK' aA ^iTiVSO KIaO 

.ir'&vAx. oA p^ooo CBoia Aa fp r^b\A^iso e) rdao 

42. Bernstein: Johannis Evangelium (Leipzig 1853), p. xviii. is 
Bar 'Eb h raya i, 211,13. r£&^oi fX x*b~Ao*^* r<s*r< ^upC 
AAa >>Ta K-ivAx- iAA.l OK'O vwr^ .n£a*i r^^^aA.T^S 
ocnin.T-ii r£snj*r< .r^-^xsn r<\ K'&v^JL*^i&i&v£a o& ore' 
AA.i 3>b.ti3 K'AvAx. o&Ao rdJL^coo .n^v».i©A\.nck .f*&u*r>:i:ia 

, a) Ms. cn^-flJA. b) One syllable too few. Read: COO\ t . tO *» Q ? 

c) One syllable too many; del. ^30 ? d) One syllable wanting. d) See Martin, 
Journal Asiatique 1872, p. 367. f) Ibid. 240,24. Elia of Tirhan r*b\0&\T< 
r^A\co»Vi "= xJjJI o«>&- Fleischer, Beitrage 1863, p. 107. 

NOTES. 27* 

.^»"Vo oA» >x.CVxi=3 vrs.CUii-.rC'.l 

Compare Hoffmann, ZDMG. xxxii, p. 750. Duval, Grammaire 

Syriaque p. 119 gives a different explanation — which however will 

snot account for the fact that the same pronunciation occurs with 

the other case-determinatives (see Bar 'Eb\ above). Compare 

Bar 'Eb h . i, 220,27 ff.: ii, 644. 

43. Thus with e; see Bar 'All, ed. Hoffmann No. 3500 — but 
Payne Smith col. 1125 (see note 45) a. 

10 44. Bar 'Eb\ i, 212,9 (comp. 240,2). ^ -Sirs' ^.i ndI*o.t») 

.rd^\ ^i.'Wnc' .&visa A»\^ tJCOna .rcSms .rf_^j^a .rOi^\ 

.^.Tsars' dv*r>a Asa^ vs^cvirj .rUnsh^. .rOvJiJW 

Comp. Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 163. Duval, p. 116. 
ZDMG. xxvi, 829. 

15 45. I do not find r£aja^ in the Lexicons: The Singular is 

generally given as r^£\=scu^Duval, p. 116. C's r£an^is formed 
only after the analogy of the other examples. 

46. Ka^o-'iA ««* « M probably signifies: the noun with 
r*'*om\ r£&o— Hsi nc'crLSmx. (personal Suffixes) mentioned below. 

20 47. Bar Zobi, fol. 76b. & |\t k'&JLm la, .^^ re^cun 

^.^o^rf .xsn.u ~-iAcn ^M K'.Vjj r<i\»j-ia.vo mb\Ckb\r*x r^x.i 

vyr^ >cb K&o^K' rdiVA-i^VSO cu^i^ca Ja&u^.i rsilrata Au'Mpc'.i 

.^jAcn vyrc'.ia .ijbtasQ ..a&\-&J~*) .jlo.iAx .ictsq-^Ji .io^nr^ 

25.i^a£B vyK* K1Z.-Y AvL»\^^\2?3 c^^xltzj A»^» Ar^a rdl-SkCn 

..aAv-W .^-^9 .». •1^9 .\cv\j .&\a=>^ vyK'o .vso^i i=3.i^\ 

28* NOTES. 

frv y t ^fr\*=*» .-AaA -»cqA rCxJt-nJzo cviynra .icujul=» ^».i .air*' 

.li*. ^usar^.i »_o<bir<' .^air*' ^cnuk. ^lre^..i ^..t jivsar^ .^x\co 

..aJLsa .,pa:i& .\a-^-_i .tcv^ry vyrC* . ^'"ioAxsa A\*r<LjLxnSa 5 
r£ix.ia&l (fol. 77 a) ^xa&oa ^Acn >\3 .^Acn vv»r<^cv .v*&ca> 
.•.a^-iAoa r »cnx.i ^U3\i ►xaco.i Compare Bar Malkon, Note 41. 
Bar 'Eb h raya, ii, 02; 1. G42. Bernstein: Johannis Evangelium, 
p. xvi, where (note) B's. criticism on Ewald is ungrounded. See 
NSldeke, Syr. Gramm. § 23, i. 10 

48. For this expression see Bar Zobi, fol. 45b, 82b, 86b &c. 
Bar Malkon fol. 40a (comp. note 41 end) ( i?kniA\sq.i rtlao-'ia. 
Severus fol. 35b rWftni r£xs»*a r^ao-i^. Bar Zo'bi fol. 81b 
rd*j&-AJ r£svL-. Severus fol. 41b et. al. a) When not annexed 
they are called K'-»-&Q^ : i-& rt'oLsix. [Elia of Nisibis], for 15 
which Severus fol. 37b has r£&o~.H& K'cfssajt.. Bar Zobi in his 
metrical Grammar, Ms. Sachau 306, fol. 114b (rdsox. aLu A3^sa) 
explains the expression: 

... C\cn*bv»rrf ^^&\ Klso.iAJtoK'a 

■ r^i^nl Ardci t<»:iCU».\ 20 

•:• yi±sx>b\2rczr} ^v.rdt.icuja.1 am 

,r<2r£i»h\*=i Aio rc'Ao 

.rCA\\»A red ArC r£snA ct\ 

(sic) .ocr> iurC' rC^rV i^ar^ivi vyK* 

(sic) •: > cb j^urC «^cucn ^_oi\»K' -x»» 

a) Comp. Harikina, p. lo9 D-'TiBS sn^i o^pn [am] orss "jar 


NOTES. 29* 

.»cnc\cK»r<' rdtsLni reiaiAfloK' 

5 CP19^- vy 1 * 13 ^ >-1 a ^l K^iAr** 

vn snail <Mo -j.ia^.i .icu 

^jiaa».."i ^coo co.inki K'cna 

chin ,ofb i&\=3.i rdATJta 

10 y''»"' .^r^ rel&a^'& 

.r^ (sic) a en a .cH^r^a .KlaK'.i 

.rdsaj^florc' rC-Jcn .=>ach ocno 

.r<l&xU >orrU_»To.i a en 

15 The last half of this is to be found, word for word, in Bar Malkon, 
fol. 73 b. Bar 'Eb h raya ii, 11,65 (Bertheau 7,27) has a different 

terminology: v^.vj^. rda^TSao ..too r^&xsi iOai'\tt)f^ ^sao 

.,*A*»o i, 79,17 (comp. 73,3,18. 77,18 ff.) ^aa i*\*v<\ petsuajtfrc' 

.^.OaIo A ^..1 rf TAT-SO .»jC»^OK'O a) jJ-»» VV.K* 

20 49. This passage is to be found in Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1873, 
p. 149, Notes 1 and 2, ibid. 1875, p. 69, of the reprint, comp. 
ZDMG xxxii, p. 741. Honain is mentioned by Bar Zobi, fol. 32 a, 

a) Comp. Dionysius 68,1 = Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 48b: 

, , . r?\ i.ia .JS3 r^*aa.'i',VPPr< > 

„ , .ocn.i . vJl..i . > 1*.t : >cnc\cK»r<' 

airXouv jxkv oTov £]jlo'j joO, o'j sjovOs- t \ % 

vl*i . >cnocK»r<' ^l rC-tM-Sq 

tov os etiauToij g<xuto5 ocutgo comp. « i 

p. xciii. ^ n 

1 .cazSO.l 


30* NOTES. 

80b, comp. Elia of Tirhan 29,17; 32,15.*' Severus has probably 
this passage in mind when he writes fol. 16b. 

(fol. 17a) r^^^aaw.t .& .^.i A^i^^.i rclii^.n r&saxn pdao— i& 
nC.ia-K' .r&lAvaxU c) r<i^u\^ r<lli*:i b) r<*SO.U3 rd^O^ia J^Ol 
,cn vy.K' .c^&vJLaAx 3..n i {-»> rc'^v.o'i.^.i oo >, tw^\ ^x.'iAA\J.i 
onXtVv.v ^» .rtlirC cn&vuxx.o »cn cn&\l=ua ^a r<itV cn&vl^ia.l 
rd&o^i& .«Ay ^»^r^ d) .cn&\afiaa ^fl rdat< cn&uuacao .•>« 
vyr^ .r<lxo&09 cuxo&vsa .& •rc'.iao r&C\m r&li^.l f<ll*i^\ 
^r^cv •:• on&vi^jsoa .>ca>A\v».Qoo .cn&\:m^. .>caj>&vi=^*-ct .>j&:v=ls»- io 

.aiA>.vrk. .tA&vsLis •Ki&'teJaoa . e) ,jAvi=i>>. .vyrV i^BrC^ Jdt^ 
Compare fol. 40b in Note 41. •:• ,&\i>i=» .i^v*- 00 .»&t.ia^. .<b&vi*i=> 

a) Ibid, transl. p. 3 Baethgen mentions a newly acquired Ms. belonging to 
the East India Office containing Grammatical treatises of Honain, It is probably 
that published by Hoffmann in the opuscula Nestoriana (comp. Ms. Sachau 5, 
No. 3; Ms. 72, No. 14, in the last of which, one of the authorities is named 
♦awOtTill M in stead of J^AXillS.. This last is also fuller at the end than 
Hoffmann's edition). — At the end of these Notes I have printed the text of these 
last pages according to Ms. Sachau 72. — Abraham Echelensis in his edition of 
the Catalogue of'Ab h diso (Rome 1653) gives the following from — the k e t h ab h a 
d he nukze?— of Honain par Ishak: (text ^2»CV&) KlSBCX&.l co*&\A>£> ^Ujj&V& 
Olu0\A »-&r<L\ Q\i S c*-"^' I shall merely mention in passing that the 
lexicographical work of Honain which appears in the most curions forms. 
Fisdasmachius, Susimahoh, taksimahi (Steinschneider was the first to see that 
all these names referred to the same work. See Virchow's Ai - chiv fur pathol. 
Anatomie &c. xxxix, p. 305 f.) ^ U . JL fc ; (ZDMG xxiii, p. 196) and ^6l*«Ai (Low, 
Aram. Pflanzennamen, p. 17) is simply the Syriac K'craSOX. .nT.ft& (Heb. "pai^S 
^Q_»V3M, Virchow's Archiv, 1. c. p. 309.) See p. 18, Note iv &c. 

b) Read r<Ll»iOT. There is a stroke over this and the following word, 
as if they were to be deleted. c) Add the copula. d) Add. |CO. e) Ms. tau 

with kussava ! 

NOTES. 31* 

50. BarZo'bifol. 75b: anx.cxxi.1 rdxy ocn t i^oj ii^ n£& 

K'.vnC K&vL^. \\*q x^nrthrtx rdJCD PdiCV_i_n >A_x. kA."1 
•V-Sflr^^x^x.i K'.t-j&v-^-.i with which compare Elia of Nisibis; 
5 ibid. fol. 80 a >nil\pqsgi^=i >v*» rd&.i r^AAoiia r<*x.oa:i r^aix. 
ji.IX.I rdSJOAr^ .on\v Alio i*^ ^93^ .r<l=sa-.l t-^Ak' } i£a.1 
.ctxj^ctx^_3.i rdi-xucute ^v-lAo In his Metrical Grammar (Ms. 
Sachau 306, fol. 12b) he says: 

.r^i^.l a WAva^V53 AAjoo 

The similarity of this passage in Elia of Nisibis with Bar 

'Eb h raya i, 21 1 has already been noticed by Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1869, 

15 p. 479 (comp. ibid. 1872, p. 364) where both passages are given. 

Elia of Tirhan 34,12. Severus fol. 39 a: r*A ^ivw&xx.K'.i Ao 

riojh. „^ooorj rd»io&vsao .nC&AAt oouto \A\.»r<iix.:i^ r£^i&>s>a 

K'^vxzcos : r^&i^isaa rV&uv-.*3g Ai^^l K'AwxoSO .&v»r£l&& 

*. rtfV^i For Bar Malkon see Note 41. Acurensis (Merx, Grainm. 
Syr., p. 73. The book itself does not exist in the Royal Library in 
Berlin) follows Elia: &S3La Ji^'i ^jL*5^ cly! o^Ui Lai! Ict^ 
XjLio Uj A&VJ&-3Q r ^Y . 9% 1 .1 A vyK* &j31«Jt A &xi'wfijc. kjyiJLo 
25**2yUI A; .rdaoA\o rc^obisi^ rCia^A vyr^ «U*cJL»J! Aj JUj 
.ijco Q9o\a& r£±<\\ b) r<k\ip r£sai*& [vyK*] 

a) K'oVkXnSa ? b) Merx, mihi ignotum. Read r^&*ifl0, which correction, 
as I see, has already been made by Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 373. 

32 NOTES. 

51. bi&l — Elia here, Bar Malkon, fol. 46 a. Bar r Eb h . ii, 
36,329 (Bertheau 32,291) where the pronounciation is testified to by 
the metre, Bar r Ali ed. Hoffmann, Nr. 4485 (also bei P. S.), Bar 
Bahlul (Ms. Sachau 305) give but one Syllable. Lee's P e sitta and 
Payne Smith col. 1616, two. 5 

52. This pronounciation of A (Bar 'Eb 1 '. i, 211,7) is under- 
stood to be the opposite of the following, of which it is said, it is 
pronounced ^v»rei^,so (i. e. r^&\*xnso) ", see below. Bar Malkon, 
fol. 45 b (comp. Note 41) has the same terminology. It is 
generally called rC^v^-so r<!a. Severus fol. 39a. Bar Eb h . ii, 10 
36,330, p. 37 comm.; the third rdxJO-, nia, Bar 'Eb h . ii, 35,324. 
Eb h dok h os fol. 119b et al. (= Phi graecum? often in Onomastica 
Sacra ed. Lagarde, ZDMG xxxii, 747) on r^&\ t t n.:sa v-Ss^po a. 
Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 377. 

53. Acurensis (Merx, Gramm. Syr., p. 75) SUCSlJt °UJi ,jl *Xfcf is 

rtSiAcn t *.i cA . . . Bar 'Eb b raya i, 211,7. ^itiri^i A ill Ju^JI 
i^fio rtLxxaZn CVX*SzJr<=> rc'crcax. Jt*i=t pdlrf .rcTi.MVUa <hol 
K'^uxAo.TJa.l cfi l .•?3.t r^\ n Vzia K , ^\»M Q >~i >cr>CUl9^\ red ^20 
r<x*\=> re^wi^sq Ibid, ii, 36,336. (Bertheau 33,298) rd\ rC&Aim^-io 2 o 
.v^i oa».icuA=> >A ctA.t .vy^J^i joK'and the commentary hereto. 

54. Acurensis (Merx, 1. c, p. 75) sSl^x* A ,^-J ^t *Xc! *i* 
.viAJj *»$il *XSl/; Jo XjyiJLo RjlSX* A ^ sjuLaxs Jo &£Slx ^jjXS 

55. Comp. Bar'Eb h . i, p. 242,9 ff. Bar Zo'bi has appropriated 
this (see fol. 80a) almost word for word, comp. ZDMG xxxii, p. 74b. 25 

56. This division and the restricting the use of the word Jti^ 
for the vowel-letters alone, I have found in no other Grammarian. 
Bar 'EbVaya ii, 38 ff (Bertheau 34) knows only of two divisions: 
such as are written but not pronounced, and such as are pronounced 

NOTES. 33* 

but not written. In the k e t ll ab h a d he semhe he makes also a 
distinction in the terminology; the second are termed r<b\a&\t< 
rCAvo^iA\^usa 202,13 (but not restricted to cfa * comp. Elia of 
Tirhan, 41,12), the third ndvula^cn t< 203,23. 
5 57. Bar Malkon, fol. 44 b ^.cn.icui >v*» -iHo vyrf.i £p i\a» 

^o \ \ t « 3&r£ Jsn Comp. Severus in Payne Smith, col. 158 b. 
58. Bar'Eb h . (ii, 39,363) almost with the same words: 

cdutLi Klicn J» i\co KliTMK' rtljoai^ .sad* iu(^o 
.^^.AiAvga r£x»ifloa ^OX-ldca r^i.l r^^Q^K'n 

In the k e t h ab h a d e semhe, however, he views this yod h from a 
different standpoint, since he reckons these examples under the 
at b wat h a met h hall e p h anyat h a — as Bar Malkon in Note 57. Kamis 

15 bar Kardaha (Ms. Sachau 306, fol. 125 a): vyK* r^Avai,^ £&r< 
\x.o .c^aorCo .KLj-wjKIsj.i- For Aa comp. Bar 'Eb h . i, 204,22; 
203,25; 236,9. Payne Smith col. 1735 cites a passage fromKarmsed- 
din, without seeing that it is, word for word, the same as that 
of Bar Eb h raya cited at the commencement of the article. 10 Under 

90 AY-* * col. 2078 we find the same passage again. Severus fol. 42a b) . 

^jiaK' '• ^a^v^ica rdlo r£x»"Ui .t*=3 ^»i ^sLfloo&^vsn .pea* 
^srdns.l »0 A\^990 .A^l OOO .^WQ -rf^OfO .^..VO .t<^a=) 
25.Ar<^La .■iK'rtlso Comp. Bar 'Eb h . above. 

59. Severus fol. 41b. Payne Smith col. 1484. Severus fol. 9b. 
Bar 'Eb h . i, 209,18. 210,18. Hoffmann, Opuscula Nestoriana 18,6ff. 

a) The second l ^yft T .ldlJSq is a printer's mistake for r<L2no\^&\_2J3. 

b) Payne Smith col. 1554 cites another passage from Severus. Comp. cols. 1603, 1643. 

34* NOTES. 

60. Comp. Severus fol. 40b cuo»*a\ Aivw Axil and 41 a.** 
Elia of Tirhan 9, 24; 22,10 rc"\m r*\ ibid. 3,18. ZDMG- xxxii, 481. 
Ms. Peterm.15, fol. 58 b k'^mtit'^ cni*ao.i ocn .^sw (-».i -^^ 
.r^&xiijAa&xxsal t i i«*"i . V_«vi AbdisV Hayyat h : Elements de 
Lecture. Mosoul 1869, p. 144. J!L^» r^&v&*-ir£a Ai».i iAua ^w 5 

61. '.'A^t k'^vo^k' are mentioned by Bar 'Eb h raya under 
the atwat h a met h gann e b b anyat h a. So Karmseddin in Payne Smith, 
col. 2174, comp. Arabic *LcO^I Ibn Malik ed. Dieterici, p. rvl. 
Mufassal, p. \\\. Fleischer, Beitrage, 1863, p. 121. Elia of Tirhan 10 
makes use of rdai^^ea and rtjxL&oa promiscuously, compare 
4,20,10; 40,12. Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 357 has published a 
long passage taken from Severus. It runs parallel with our passage 
from Elia of Nisibis. For the first examples comp. Bar'Eb 11 . 
(ed. Berth.) 35,321. i 5 

62. Compare Elia of Tirhan 41,11. Severus fol. 11 a. Bar 
'Eb h . 1. c. 34,311 ; and for the next two cases Bar 'Eb h . ibid. 312,313. 

63. Bar Malkon, fol. 47 a: 

.^Avi^vi rC&ulx. t^&u^std Aa pa rCxx^bsa 
.^bzisrn >U50O ^L*cn.i ^CU vy re' rdx.nri' .*u> iua (fol. 47b.) 20^ ^laiazs 0^0 &A.1 ore* ^u.ia o£» orC 

. b WA*Au3-sao r^^.i^^so.i Kill vyrtf' Kla^Avso 
.A\2ui^&P<' AK" K'^.T^-O .^.TmO oO^^r^O .vl.t&K'a 25 

a) tJS»3r<li?l ..l ^ orC ^»X»opO. Causa Causarum. Ms. Sachau 180, fol. 115a, 

coJ. 1. b) Wanting in one syllable. c) De Sacy, Notices et Extraits ix, p. 42. 
.l«J sVkJI ^jli cbw ^J»/5 cJa*. JUjiT $tf (VbJ|) Ufcjju iiU. |J|, 

NOTES. 35* 

••=>cn* vyrC Ks^ii t<A^vr^73 «^^rC .sorx* JSpn rfcn A&o 

c) ..ix.a&£i:i i* jiaa^ .^.aidt »^r^O ^AtrCi rdliAK' 
5 64. Severus, fol. 42a. r^dysLw > Ax-K'.i r£s*>r< Is. .sct&o 

.rCyuL^K' k^vajlo rC&ixav-s ,=>a&v rdi^cn Compare Bar 
Eb h . ii (ed. Bertheau), 35,319. 

65. Although in Mss. B and C it does not belong here, as it 
10 has already occurred under the at b wat b a met b gann e b b anyat h a. 

66. Bar 'Eb b . i, 202,22. r^jLflocni&o nC_.iocnuo rdsaciaris 

rdAz. ^»cus.i rd\sa=3 AK 1 )oi=> rOLuJ.i^a p3 rCco .sa& ^,.1 

.&\\cas >L»L3.i rdsoAK' .red&J rc^CU^t&^sa ^dri£t >JUn 

15 .%x.o ousotu&k' .avnca* ..aAcns&vsa .Kllorxa^jso .o\\oa=ad»r<' 

Compare Noldeke, Syr. Gramm., p. 25. 

67. Severus fol. 43b. r*h\c\b\r< A-** isardsoA r&xjaoo 

6S. Comp. Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 335 r^&ci&K' 
20 rfa*xs\s»bvLSa or r^o^r^^Lwaz. (Jacob of Edessaed. Wright 3b) 
== Jl Jo^l Ibn Malik (trans, ed. Dicterici), p. 383 ff. Mufassal, p. tvf- 
(Fleischer, Beitrage 1863, p. 112). ArAsma'i wrote a ^JUJ! ^\jS 
\}\dS$\ y "Ueber die Umwandlung (eines Buchstaben in einen 
andern)und die Vertauschung (eines Buchstaben mit einem andern). 

a) Ms. Mus. Brit. .P03&1, perhaps the better reading, h) Ms. Mus. Brit. 
r<tLA\. c) The Ms. is here defect. So in my copy and Ms. Mus. Brit, cl) Ed. 

Phillips, p. 6, 7. 


36* NOTES. 

Fliigel: Grammatische Schulen der Araber, p. 79. Hebrew: mTan 
anarpa nlTnxn nsp Harikma, p. 44 (comp. p. 11 Bacher, Termino- 
logie p. 16) or rmmattn tiffon (ibid. Manuel de Lecteur, p. 32, 1) qsn 
(Arab. ^JUjt Ibn Malik, transl. p. 377. Notices et Extraits ix, 
p. 35.) Bacher, 1. c. p. 16. 5 

69) Bar 'Eb h raya 208, 22 gives 'Esk e t h a, whom Duval. Gramm. 
Syr. p. 41 follows ; but compare Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 46. 
Merx, Gramm. Syr. p. 101. Lagarde Gesam. Abh. 189, 11. The 
Kur'an readers are warned against this. Notices et Extraits ix, p. 46. 

70) With the exception of Semkat 1 ' before dalat' 1 , Bar 'Eb h . i, 10 
205, 21 gives this change as specifically Nestorian. Mufassal ivl, 
last line: JJjif auaJU* btv oJjol x-lS^L* JtjJ! JuS oJtSj I jt^ 
Jo-yj Kiyj Jju*o ^ \SC> jjulJ 3. Comp. Rikma, p. 47. For 
K&'V3J»c\a comp. Swju**S^ and iyjjf Lagarde, Gesam. Abh. 57, 4. 
Low, Aram. Pflan. 209. Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 45. 15 

71) The last example a) does not belong here, comp. Mufassal, 
p. UV10 ^UJiy^jd! IkM. ZDMG. xxi, p. 193. Noldeke, Neu-Syr. 
Gramm. p. 41. Mand. Gramm. p. 42. 

72) Bar 'Eb b raya i, 208, 10. Mand. Gramm. p. 38. ZDMG. 
xxxii, p. 748. Comp. Briicke, Beitrage zurLautlehre der Arabischen 20 
Sprache. S.-A. p. 24. 

73) Bar 'Eb h . i, 208, 15 doubts the correctness with respect 
to kapodkaye — the dalat h of which he reads with Rukkaha. 

'Eb h dok h os says the same. fol. 128 a rCJLaxeJLn .jacqA-b 

K&.tjjo f^LxoO.TsLn . Kllao.iafln*^uo Margin: jm Kixao.i&j? 25 

£v»&u»a .i\.i y*xa oKfcv=> r&n.ia&ja taken probably from the 

Ausar raze, comp. Lagarde, Gesam. Abh. p. 257. Bar Malkon 
gives the pronunciation of Kjd.iot^ with tau Kussayaita. 

a) M e tasyait h as the text has. In the translation I have made the correction 

NOTES. 37* 

74) Coinp. Bar 'Eb h . i, 208, 3. I fear the text is not in order, 
as I see no cause for pronouncing the A in the forms of . yVi> 
with Kussaya. Ms. Mus. Brit. add. 25876 offers the same reading. 

75) To be added Duval, p. 41 2 . Comp. Merx, Gramm. Syr. 
5 p. 100. Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 46, note 4. Payne Smith, col. 

1717, following Bar Bahlul, gives jusa— which he has simply 
taken from Castell p. 428. Read jy>«\n (comp. Ms. Sachau 306 fol. 
120 a, in note. 

76) We should perhaps read rVii^flo aiceipa in the text. 
10 Comp. Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 44, § 47. Beidawi to Sura 37, 19 

mentions a case before b. «^o! for *x*J and the Kur'an Massorete 
(Notes et Extraits ix, p. 47) before io. Fliigel: Grammatische 
Schulen etc. p. 59, comp. Briicke: Beitrage etc. p. 20. How s e p h ar 
yamnia comes in here I do not know. a) 

is 77) Read M e rakkakht h a ? 

78) Bar 'Eb h raya i, 206, 19. Ausar raze to Tohu 19, 13 
r?\±lbcn ^ vyr^ Asi^ >jt,cuar> r^h^i ^ Mufassal, p. U1,10 
r x^LT ^l oLXJ! comp. Noldeke, Mand. Gramm. p. 41, ZDMG. 
xxxii, p. 748. 

20 79) Bar 'Eb u . i, 208, 18. Comp. ZDMG. xxvi, p. 829, xii, p. 607. 

Wright, Catalogue of Syriac Mss. etc. p. 104 a. Saadya cited by 
Derenbourg, Manuel p. 207 rvA^U ,j^**"M ,j^j U^i* &JLJ&H „jjy*Jfj. 
Comp. Mufassal, tvv, 9. \\% 8 ^j^S ^1 ^j^\ IW, 3. Notes 
et extraits, ix, p. 26. Barth, Kitab al-Fasih p. 18. 

25 Bar Malkon fol. 47 b has all this with the exception of the 

change of semkat h to sad b e, + dalat h to tau. 

a) But compare Bar Malkon in note 79. b) One syllable too few. 

38* NOTES. 

.rtfbct&ieta .Kii^t .r<SkU KL&t.l ,\ vyK* 

.r^dvjkXnsa k'.tu cni^vn t<1jL**.i r^&xAx. &i&3OS0a 

.ftr*w,nii oK' ,u» r<la *' »<***! &i\sa:i K'acnit ^k'o 5 

.r^^ujL^at^^xsa ^xx. cbiiva.i K$\Ax. &u.\ a^o 

.^^cvxjJ rd^.ov=> K'.'uA cr>iAv=3.i rC&ulx. ^*x. L>o 

■ ^Ixo.i ►=? r^.Tw rtlxoys cni&xa.l c^Aulx. ^au Aao 
.^*aOA vuoal rdi.vcL. vyr^ oa»ia ■\*ai\ > vyr^ 

.r^L&jxfioK'a ..iS^xi&nc'a Klmkja &vx=iO ooa^xi wyr^ ^A vy rt* ax»io 

.crA c£_»acr> t<lAx..l &u^ iiva r<2k K'.ico »j^O 15 

b) .cQia°y\^Mi vyrC r<jxa.i AAA £u\ ^luLZJSa 

.rffb&AXsna c) ,cp re'KAx.* Asa^ iAus ^jirtfcv (fol. 48a) 

^.r^Ava^ vyrV r^AAtso AaA Asa^ .«v\ ux, 

.ptflAx. rdX.T ^CU3 cbi&xs.i K'&vAx. r^b\xxo iuio 

.r&mdSuoo rdo.ioi^ vy^ en* in rC^uza o& vyr^20 

.&Uh.l.l rV&VAXD &\*= >3."U» r^i\.T..l rV&\A*Ai j^o 

a) Ms. Mus. Brit. f<jJLO&>fi8:i. b) One syllable to few. c) Read as 

two syllables. ^CO wanting in Ms. Mus. Brit. d) Ms. Mus, Brit. KVV&^JV 

which completes the number of syllables. e) Last two lines are wanting in 

Ms. Mus Brit. 


Severus fol. 43a has the following interesting passage: 
.nf&inl Ar^ r^^I^sao i*^ i^iuas- : r^oAxna t*H:u» iAv=» 

a.oi& ^»cp&cu\r>anfloo .K":icd .T^r< -co .- .J^ .js .^i(< ^Acn 
. JA=>cuu» .• c^AxiwiAcv r^ivi^-^sal i»\^ r^Avva^. .r^ote*-:*^ 
rCAv^a^A .saoS rc*& V s . .SQQ rC'oV' Ar^ -co ^A -an^sa 
ai ^A.^ ft. . « % ^,\,a n *a vy» Klio ^JlLscuaao . r^hiijixAo 

i».»" tfr-^i r<Isoa .jantfo r^& vi , n\ . -\o .-co K'^vi v^ . t a 
co£\c\l odAxvim rd&M.l c^.vce*o .K^cuvajkSfl.i klLluA ^AwT'sq 
r£aav[*>]<*\J» *<^a. ; i «<*^0 re'c^w •^^ v b) ^V<^ rO^cX. 
r^ .-en rCcKu^* \o .rC\\ai.i r&nx. ^p r&bi\G\j co 
r^j^Afl-.jl >-»*-% *-*ob cn&i.n.v cbA\a i rt v, .eh .c Ki r> n 

ioJLOv2iC\ .r^un^L ^ -coo .rCix^j ^ aco.i K^Avocu^o 
icu» cnuAv»rC* ^cn.i r^Jl^ao r<£ax. l^o (fol. 43 b) '. rCUoea=» 

It is clear that this passage bears great similarity to Jacob of 
Edessa, in Wright, Catalogue etc. p. 1169. As common source we 
20 have to look upon the following: Dionysius 12, 5 (compare the 
preceeding page: tootcdv <}n^ (r^Awina) p.ev eoxi Tpta, x it t, 
Saoea (nfiua*.) rpia, 9 9 X' M aa (^^J^ 30 ) &e toutiov Tpta, 
6 7^ 

80) The native Grammarians call the plural sign: 

25 r£2»*» d) Johannan (Estonio?) in Amira p. 48. Elia of Tirhan 

a) Dionysius 13, 3 'Avxiato^ei 8e t& Sauea xott <j>dou. b) 80 in my 
copy. ? c) Read ^..ICTO ? d) This word seems to have a more general 

40* NOTES. 

41,5 and Elia of Nisibis continually, comp. <<Vacu ^AviAx* ^znjiso 
Jacob of Edessa, ed. Phillips 15, 18 I do not find this expression 
in Bar 'Eb h raya. rCsaxso = 6eaet? positurae /. tiOtjjxi = poxfio 
as also rpoOeai; Dionysius 70, 1 is translated with &coa.ia^a s) 
<<5oIft> and etciOetov (33, 1) by f*£gsa*fi0&\£ca. 5 

<*rdi^a> Jacob of Edessa ed. Phillips 15, 18 f. Bar 'Eb'\ (ed. 
Ber.) 15, 109. 

k'&cujl^od ^wdcu Bar 'Eb b raya i, 242,8. 243, 6: or simply. 

r?Tvocu Severus fol. 35b. Bar 'Eb h raya 44, 3, 8. 74, 9. 243, 16 
et al. b) io 

r&o^ Duval, Gramm. Syr. p. 124. = Arabic y , fa ,o > Amira 
p. 48 is the authority for the use of this word. I have not found 
it in any of the other national grammarians. 

81) Comp. a letter of Mar Jacob ed. Phillips, p. 15 below. 
Bar Malkon, fol. 44a: 15 

meaning, as it is also used to denote the vowel-signs Severus p. 35 a. B. 0. ii, 
p. 83. Amira p. 34, Duval, p. 73 ; and the accents, Jacob of Edessa, ed. Phillips 
69, 21. 70, 15. Wright, Catalogue etc. p. 107 b. (For a curious misunderstanding 
of the term S e yame where it has nothing to do with punctuation marks, see Abra- 
ham Echelensis in his edition of 'Ab h diso's Catalogue, Rome 1653, p. 176.) 

a) Compare r&tUSD aiOSOj.Ta Bar 'Eb h raya i, 84. Chap. xxii. Severus 
fol. 14a. Aprein in B. O. i, 64. Bernstein, Lex. to Chrest. p. 169. b) r^VoCU 
= oxf/p-rj, compare Isaiah 29, 5 (Hexapla). K'&'ICU^.l r^V-OOJ VV-»(^ 
■ V^frTi f£j.l^~l LXX, we <TTt7U,7) 7rapay£pT)[ji,a. j/. gt(C"> = \ai Bickell, 
Glossary to Carmina Nisibenia p. 35. Prov. 19, 7. Hex. verb, denom. Wright, 

Catalogue p. 463 b. c) I do not understand this expression — rdnJJO^ is used 
by the Eastern Syrians for r^sia-yV . but that brings us no further. 

NOTES. 41* 

Severus fol. 35 a Aa A*, ^sa&flo.i K'vocu ^'ih\ rtLsalfloo 

a) .rC<fooiiA\pfa Jixx %Do±.a .^»iai^ (<xaauo .pC&oaJ-L^o .K^mVVn. 
redo .^saJLLh. ^»i& vyr** jufia&.i rt^ox. Aa, A*. ^>.i jii«*iifw 

5«liin A^. ArC* .^>.*3tt *\» «^VA»r< r6u. .-&v\sa Ax. ^u-auoff 
.»\ h X.O .».t -a s, vv»rf reLsaJLfloA ^xjjaoi .^i\-OP.lQ rdu&x nnl 
reA .^rgV\tt> .^rtfa r^AuJ-i^.i ^.1 r^Laa Ax. .^\nTi .J nsi 
•=»oA> K'cri snT,o '..ivnT, cualo .£».Tax. .o.inx. vyr^ ■ ^l i'Mitt 
c£sa nJlxicvcxx. t »io KWI^qd Ax.o .^tar^ poA &ur£>:i 

io r«A rtfi'Ujr^ rCx\=> ^isarC&ca iso^.i oerucC : ^xAj^^uacL».n 
•:• rfx 1 % i^arda t<$vxjJ» ctfiax. r£xi& ^jac*' .re'vnCU 711.003 
>mm rcA -. r£jcra.i r£o\ ^aax/idi ^ i,l o.t ^ t\ irCo 
.rd-aat. .rixJrf ^jArtfo (fol. 35 b) rcS-ait. £1020:1=3 nCvncu 
iv.KLj.t-Ma •• vsarftoswi .mh^x. ^oca-i^Q xjjlAao .pdxJpfo 

15 )aA rdijjsaa.i .aa£t ptf' .rdra&ws iom &v»rcLi^C0o 
AflDOrC •. ^.TSJK'^53.1 rdsa rdlv= ^.*=0.i rt&.TuAa .^»r<i^fio 
iin.V Irf Ax. a '.rd.'icxo }nx. vryrC r<bui)9 ^UAOrf rfvoCU 
.iCUil rdn -i.jj.n.i Ax. .'rdsa-vJto ^a-kflo^i rdl « « j^M^rif* 
rtA rtisaxflo ^r^^no.t.i ^ju^vflo ^Art* '. Qattw%\ ^Acn *=>&iat&03 

20 '• rtlaa— Hflk cCctlsox. ^vlXOpC' r£sax. .aA» Ax- rtlAcv .QouaaSi 

Ax. rd\o v^asrt'o ^aaebo ^Acd iiasaxs ^rdj^no ^r£o 

~*cnulx. {Xnelx..! .ncLsba rfensax. ^»cnA &i»rf r£A.i o».fy»*A 

&UxAo x*~a ,\\*a»o >a-x.a Aj& vyrC* b) r<LiLa»nJo KL&o^H^ 

•:• f^Q.i.l ^-U-.rt'a ^ocq2>ix.o ^icnl^o ^ocal^, isarc&i .i.-vuet 

Bar 'Eb u raya 243, 16. ^oco^ojrcl^© ,cn .^la.i k'cosox. Ax. 

a) Word for word as in Bar Malkon. b) Bead without copula. 

42* N0TE8. 

t-Z-u^x. .^vcl*.iio ^iine^ vyrC .^nt°n*> rtlu&Ofia rdi^cuao ^soo 

•L& .KVxicu £*2ax.i&09 red .^niTii ,^ii«\T, .^ 

Comp. Noldeke, Syr. Gramm. p. 10. Duval, p. 124. 

82) Bar Zo'bi fol. 16 b. d\»r£j.Tu.i ^ooojjso iur^i >cn=j 

(fol. 17 a) &ur£).Tjj ^ J iiS0r<'i>SO.1 b) iuKb ^Aco .rt&ivJK' 
•:• c£l:i3 »<L\C\\ vyr^ .KllU-SOra ^aiA\ ^Oco«^*rfo .r^aUTi 10 
KV<lil\Do .^©co-^urcta .r£sax=> durdi.-u* ^isort'&oa.'i iuK'o 
.rdujuo .r£soa» .rSlxOA .rfAuvx^B .rfi n 7 vyrf rtSacana 
•joorxi&urfa rdjj.Tu vy»rf ^•iiart'^so.i A\_»r^o •:• rt'&Uh^fio 

•tSfl^-A rd\ ^.i AukIi.Tm ^isopficzj AurfjcClk^flo (sic) rdjcj^i 15 

e) .r<^»iK' A^» %*n:i rdrui cq\a i*^ ^jLinsorf .TsorfAoa ^ 
d\*r£j.-u» aoii r^'iv .r££s >cnaAv»r<' tactic p*La^j» >aia 
•:- g) r<li^. ^>£ri£i fJ .r<Li*. cniflk ^tsflr^.rf'isarf&cja iufOrt^oo 
.^■io&ca r^istu* )oxa r^ifla^A rdsa.t^-a .Tu -5» .=©& KSSXM20 

But comp. Elia of Nisibis 26, 1. Quite similar. Bar 'Eb h . II, 
13, 87 f l) (Bertheau, 9, 49). The source of all this is to be found in 

a) Bead ^a^QJciarCQ. b) Comp. note 95. c) Zachar. 12, 4. Lee reads 
without s e yame. d) II Kings 18, 23. e) Gen. 1, 26. f) Gen. 33, 13. 

g) Jes. 7, 21. h) Comp. note 87. i) Comp. I, 25, 6 ff. 

NOTES. 43* 

Dionysius 31, 1. Eiol 8e xive? Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 44b. 

evtxol ^apaxiTJpei; xai xata K'cn-su. Ac^ ^*.i fc __oca*iv»rc' 
iroXXuiv Xeyofisvoi, olov B7Jp,oi; j_sa »<__-. tjji «,i\ »r^ rfji»»r< 
^opo? o^Xo? xai uXtjOovtixoI KVd-A^CD ijk. .1* .^ 
sxaxa evuaiv re xai Suixwv, .r^L'sav.a .acn vyr^ .^ia£» 
evixaiv fxev uk 'AOrjvat 67)601, &V.CC f».i aoi\ .rifra^ .t ^!ti% 
Su'ixuiv 8e the, dficpoxepoi. ^ » V ^ KLst-wr^ rf e n *a ..t . 

Comp. p. lxxxvii. .f»v=arc*&oa .» a) ^v.rd*^X».t 

.___ ok* :.iou\g .im A_* ** 
10 oen vyp^ . .,> s.icvj-SO ^-»"icV\ 

aoii .r&cvio rclsoa rfVaiT .a 
rda-i-wrc* r^co-SO-X. cK-*^ ^».l 
.^isoK'Avso po cVurdi.iu.i ^tLrf 

is .Kli.iko rd^Ol.l ©en 

83) Elia of Tirhan (26,21) calls such forms KLxia-ti c£juoa 
(*4-U p« ?0 — viewed from another standpoint Bar l Eb h raya (i, 
243, 25) rdA_vc\a> p-» *\\* kVtoix. — which passage is also to be 
compared with Elia of Nisibis. 

20 Bar Zo'bi, fol. 17 a rd\a .cK»rc!_p£__^Q0 ^.nsoK'ioi.i iurrtj 

•:• K'&O-yL-,© .rd-_a.iQ .r£»Ja vyce* .cVuK-I.vm ^»i=3pc*cte» 

84) Bar Zo'bi fol. 17 a. iv_.rcli.v-M ^-.v-acf&v-sa.i cK-trc*© 
.rt-, .rdxiK'io .^o.tso.i r<_»x. vyrc* .cVurdird^noa 

Bar c Eb h raya I, 244, 5. .icuiJ-a c\vtc£ir£jkJ^J->.l r?cn-nr, 


a) Bead with double r<* as in Ms. 

44* N0TE8. 

.^oco^\cuj.ti*=» rfvocu compare ibid. II, 14 commentary. Bar 
k Eb b raya makes here a distinction which I do not find in Elia. 
Amira, Gramm. Syr. p. 95 gives rdxJr^ and r<xJXr*, Payne Smith 
the same and .*<r\~f without s e yame (comp. Duval, p. 263) Bern- 5 
stein, however, in the Lexicon to his Chrestomathy, p. 526 r<Csacf 
and -Axirtf', as also Rodiger, Chrestom. pp. 26. 98. I do believe, 
the usage is constant. 

85) Comp. below p. 31, 9. Bar 'Eb h . i, 26, 16. 

86) Bar Zo'bi fol. 17 a. &v»r£i:u> ■i^Jr^rco rddrt* r^sax.0 io 
XSOr^h^sfid •:• Axctfso.i KixJK' Ax. f<\*u»& klX.i ,cb vy*»< 

KUAD'ICXSk.l rtlaSOX=> ndln »ob vwt^ &v»r£l:u> nJSar^&VSa rdiSU-.l 
^o^.mi.i >er> vyK* i\*n£jrcl*^fio iia^vsao .^WcnArf.i ocp 

c) r^< -ai&o t^i-atlT. 15 

87) Regarding Ki ion comp. Bar Eb b raya i,244, 7. 'Eb h dok h os 
fol. 126b AvA r£*"ioj3 Kllio-a. For r^isa_«* compare note 82 
(Bar Zo'bi) Bar 'Eb". (i, 28, 3 ff.) says the same. 'Eb b dok h os fol. 
52 a. k'Hjsojj : rC'iso**.! K'iia Ar^ : r^r^ *.' ^m tfisjaj* .tp K'ipa** 
.^axp-.i. Margin: rc'icoxA rdssoxo K'AxlAxo ^»i& rCT=**»2o 
rO<jJ^» d) r<T»u». Bar 'Eb h raya ii, 16, comm. gives — against 
the authority of the k e t h ab h a d he semhe the form of the plural as 
f^xsou — which form however is given byAprem and K[armseddin] 

a) ? b) Mathew 5, 34. c) Eead »^O.lA>0 d) So 

also Ms. Sachau 182. Payne Smith col. 1309 (where he cites both passages) adds 

NOTES. 45* 

Payne Smith, col. 1310. Comp. Merx, Gramm. Syr. p. 23. Duval 
p. 62. Bernstein s. v. 

As regards r*ix^ Elia agrees with K. (P. S. 1449) against 
Bar 'Eb h raya (ibid.). 

5 88) Bar Zo'bi fol. 17 a. &*-»cdi.i-»j ^Wr^M* iur^o 

rdaUrta rdn-rf vyr* .i\*r£icd*^J» ^.irsixflasao. These words 
are probably reckoned as plurals because of their ending in rt— r r 
Comp. Nold., Gramm. p. 11 note 1; Merx, Gramm. Syr. p. 83, the 
s e yame points are not placed : "ubi vero ex litteris ipsis aut ter- 

lominatione plurale cognoscitur. " 

89) Bar 'Eb h raya, however (i, 244, 11) writes se(i)d h and h e d h ar 
with s e yame. Duval, p. 125. 

ff/A,\ ^ \ v k'^o^K' comp. Elia of Tirhan 15, 15. 24, 20. 
Bar Zo'bi fol. 77 a. Comp. ,&oir<'ct Kia bcAcvX*. Bar c Eb\ i, 

15 89, 12. 93, 17. 95, 5. 

89a) r^\oco Syllabarum formatio. P. S. col. 967 following 
B. 0. iii, p. 307. I am indebted to Prof. Noldeke of Strassburg 
for the understanding of this chapter. He most kindly sent me, 
in answer to my question, a full explanation and translation of 

20 the same. As regards the heading of the chapter he says : Den 
Titel hatte man also wortlich zu iibersetzen: "Nun wollen wir 
reden vom Buchstabiren des Wortes der syrischen Buchstaben." 
Das ist eine ungeschickte Art des Ausdrucks fur "dariiber wie die 
syrischen Buchstaben, welche je ein Wort constituiren, beim Buch- 

25 stabiren bezeichnet (resp.vorgetragen)werden. oajjaa&cnl.i Kl\pcn 
ist eine feste Verbindung: "Buchstabiren des (jeweiligen) Wortes 71 ; 
da wird nun: der [einzelnen] syrischen Buchstaben etwas unge- 
schickt im Genitivverhaltniss angehangt. Wir wiirden eher er- 
warten oaxfia&cnA^i.i r^&u^iaoo nfdxo&ir^.i rdx^oao. 

so 90) Severus foi. 23 ff. has this passage word for word, part 

of which I have made use of in the text. He gives, generally, more 

4b* NOTES. 

examples for the rules. Fol. 34a treats of the same subject in a 
little different form: •**'* * «v»*\^ pcVocLj \\«w "vsarc^ 
.r^ix,* ^Acoo a) rdxst-i^nft rc^ijjcv&.io 
rdiLxsacVia rf-?ky* ^v»rC.i rcVocu ^ocni&.i ^..%-5ol ja.t't 
,t^ ^.t r<!bauC\&.l r£»CU>cK») rVco.l Kia^K' alOw Jl1\ 5 

Arc* .rc*4u«A\ }as*. .=»e\c^ <<L»c\x.c\ >A rdAx. . ^wn^ ^a\.i 
•:• rtlAcca .=»onLi rcdrwcUkA.i .sacS rttoOtttSk 
ius vyirC Ktoax. rd*.ioc\x..l r^Lsn ^squfiocVk&CH rdiax. 

.K'io.i rdi*rdA n^saxi A&u.i Klsaii co 10 
.TA . rd*.iocvr.."t rdu >lcvsa=> ?au*_a>chAv_50 ^.i r^»&vucV\ 

■:i<'iiiftx rdl.t Ajai A «.riSO r£i^.ic\& 
-*."l*cn .rC^iorC Klxo.l t<li*."ioA ocp ~M^cHx£a ^.s .ta 

vt^ch&cC* A&vn [rc*]xliL.i rCvoCU }x»J»&Ao3 
cdsa : rtvar&a coIa Jcaoxs )ojJ»c^eh» ^».i rCjjCUttk 15 

•:-i<kicuat> AnT, rdi^.ia& Arc* r£».iocvx.:i 
vyrC* .reiiA )a\ v\a.i=> rc^.ioax. ocp ja&cWk^q ^-».i *J^__ 
KL»cKu^ >tcm cnsaAaxso : rel.c\x\ >*V -\^ •!*=» vy&vfxu.i 
^o rdo —"ia. rCis-ioAo ccL».iaax. ^Kb -:-rdjLx.ic\& ^ag 
o»\»i .^CA*^\aU XW t<lS>X^Av °> "i.l cH-*-A rcij_a_»rc' .rd&ior^20 
r£».iocxx. ^i<^ •:• ^oeoj'icS .x.ic\&A Ki&soflo ^qjlQocVx&o r<*cKucV* 
r££8 vy&\flQl X»> -\^°r»^ .^oA rC!l^*rC' KH^.^9QSQ jjl&&\X28 

■ rt.fw :K'i»iv» arc* ^»i<h vyrC* vytrV ^».i r<ixic\Aa .^a\soXc^r^.T 

a) Read rctiX.'ICXA.'IO "distinction" compare the use of the word r^X.Q1& 
for f^cVvXCLl vowel, Bar 'Eb h . i, 3, 8 and the more general use ZDMG. xxx, 
pp. 526. 529. A letter of Mar Jacob etc., 17, 9. Elia of Tirhan 34, 13. Bar 'Eb h . 
i, 244, 2 f. b. Hoffmann, Opuscula Nestoriana, p. xvii. 


NOTES. 47* 

JSknio crA tAjxhucr? (fol. 35 a) rtlsaAox. T^ .r£acuaa& Tcudo 
Bar Malkon, fol. 37a: 

.Klin JwsirdV »^cn\ ^i^A&taa ^..l rC^»jJCX&.l 

.r^i\s\o B) pdjo[<\]flQao r£*&vu£*o cd\ot\ 

.wTi't Kj.ioax. >saficn jcia=*A rd^CMo 

.)a*A crA Ajai.i r£ixici& ^39.1 reliz.ietsA 

.*<A+ir{ ocp rdl^ioA >i».iorA relA^o 

.rdkictno Ani... reli^OJao.t r£so ^».i rcLocuaaa 

91) Perhaps it were better to read cfi'uml^ ^*.i c^vocu with 
isSeverus fol. 24 a — who adds K'vaaA r^fia'i.^ vyrf »^oco*AuK'o. 

For this division compare fol. 25 b ^»r<* i \jjff ^ocn-L».i r£x.$r? 

xl.o c£ojc aLjox-.i r&\±rt ^ojrf. Jacob of Edessa (ed. 

Phillips, p. 14, 7) divides them in KLaA.i=ao rd\ix^ (comp. 

ibid. 17, 17. Martin, Tradition Karkaphenien p. 45. Payne Smith, 
20 col. 755). Bar Zobi (Martin: Traite de Bar Zubi sur l'accent des 

Syr. Orienteaux. Actes de la Soc. Phil, iii, no. 1) in k'txxi (1, 4. 

11, 15) and cdA^/icuw (18, 20), which last division we find again 

in Bar 'Eb h raya (ed. Phillips, 26, 24. 27, 1 f. b.) t^Amx/ix. and 

rdti^i^. The commentary to Bar c Eb h . ii, p. 75 uses i <fw i \ ^ 
25 and ^Vaai^ jaoi^. 

92) Bar c Eb h . ii, 76 v. 850: 

a) The wau is written in red by a different hand. 

48* NOTES. 

Commentary: r^iswncisa -mlA^m.k' Klauiir^ .v*. r^AuAOi ^Acria 

rc'Avsaxi.t r£.*=ioivs r<j»o"ix» which is to be compared with Bar 
Zo'bi (ed. Martin p. 1) i*^ cnsaso -|x.o ^cix. .iL&nc' ^*.i .t^.i 
r<io"io >cnoLk. .jjliJ&v&U.i K'.Tjj rC'.lOcnu.l w^Bl, i&va cd\o%\ 5 

■ c^&ooxi.i K&on^A ^sja 

In fact the first few pages of this tract follow Elia closely. 

93) Bar 'Eb h . (ed. Phillips 31,8) > xx=»a Kiox. ^.i >*»&&\=3 
r< K'^olo. Bar Zo'bi fol. 38 a ^.ia kLsbico jsp .i*> ."wA 
rc'&cucuaa .ptlsa.icoo .r^Ausa.i rtb^xx** comp. Duval, p. 149. 10 

94) The quotation is not correct, compare Jes. 7, 14. Bar 
'Eb h . i, 241, 17 «4vi_» r6oiu.ri ^.1 rdsali. rdA .rd»x^- 
rdoAv*."U cn^CVSolx-O .K'&AyiT^ rC^XTL.^Uh. r£o&v»:u K&a.icnflara 

. nc'.TJL-.o rdju^a Klaot.rc'.i r<L^Axa> . rc'io . < |\rc'^o J^=iA\ 15 

I insert here a number of verses on the four chief accents 
which I have found in four Mss. in the Sachau collection (Ms. 306, 
fol. 120 a. Ms. 216, fol. 226 a. Ms. 72, no. 13. Ms. 60, no. 13). In 
Ms. 306 it is given as belonging to the grammatical treatises of 
Bar Zo'bi (compare Martin, traite, text p. 2 b), but the other Mss. 2 q 
say nothing as to the Authorship: 

.rdcaSk vyuv.i soaAoO .rdovi vJoai t-\-° 

A = Ms. 72. B = Ms. 306. 
a) For this reading A has simply : '. rCioJicvA O^nif^ A^.1 Kftv»Cl.u^\ 


. (1) rc5oCOaa^ rdJu.i* ^o.ixa 
ne&U* .199.1 r<lu.T e) .xiKA 



. b) ^fsa.i »cnco9\&\Si .qcq^o 

.rc2DOfiO& K'"V5ar<!s>3 r<*99.T 

.KSaAfia& &cA rdVcuSQ.i 
. p) *cna$u»<' r&.ioax.i Kl\o\ 
.'^cncuiiacvx- ^T».i rt^a&.i 

.rdioax. A^Aa caisa 

K'&MVJC.di >iax=3 p^l^at .♦^o^ut.K'.i rtfso oca ^^.i^a 

.isn^ r£o<\fla& K'isar*^ 
.r^&vx^jc.'%A aA iix^aa 

■K*\».i r^in^ :u> A\'"*i . n) iiJA\r^ ^lalr** r^KiaAxx. ,*J^ 

• r£i^.iaA pas*. r«j.iaax. 

a) B r<i=JOS03. b) Wanting in A. Bead r&SB.l ? c) B. r£=xA. 

d) B order inversed. e) To be pronounced as one syllable, f) A and B have the 

copula! g) Before this A KLS8.1. h) A margin. i) A cn_klOO-JL. 

k) AandB oojSQ.lcn. 1) B without cop. m) A caX*.l. n) Read *Et h pe. on 

account of meter, o) Wanting in B. 




The Jewish grammarians call the accents respectively 
emperor, duke iv.c, according to the part of the sentence over 
which they have power. Comp. Derenbouvg, Manuel du. Lecteur, 
p. 72. Stade, Hebr. Gramm., p. 50 fol. 

95. Bar Zo bi, fol. 15 a (compare the extracts in notes 82 — 80, 5 
both chapters really belong together)/ 8 t<Li_x2w V*-^ rtmznx. 

^urc'i&.i ~*%sar?b&3 ^ocaaso r^K' .t< U' . ^ . n io redistil &ua Or*' 
^urdnxij ^'isart'ivsa ^ooraosao .Aun^ani ^»i^ac<$\5a n£\© 
d\*r^vi.i •^rsaK'ivs* ^^ocoasoa .K»t<iak3 ^.'isarc'ioi r^\o 10 

.r^ajcfo .r^LancUsQ .^A^o .r^ixi vyn-^ ^jaax»iv*pC .&v»rdaxu 


•:• ^Acd vy* 

El Vy 

r^m rd^il-O r^Au\o .re' .r^tinta 

aj Diou\'sius 24,8: evict ok ~poa- 
t (.Clean TO'jto'.; aiXk ouo, xoivov ts 
xat eKi/.otvov, xotvov f/.ev otov itt— o; 
v.uion, £~?y.o'.vov o£ otov ys).to<ov isTo;;. 
Comp. p. lxxxiv*. 

Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 43 a. ^lilK' 
^io ^ .TmA ^fclTMr^ (fol. 43 b) 

r^^xLia, vy-»K' »cnodv_»K' 
r^'-Ukll Jca.l ^AcrA.l ^-Ajpc'o 


r^A^o .n^i&>-o .r^&iucuflffo .rdJO.*o (sic) r^&\*s \ vyr^ 
r^Lsnx. aA ^»io r&saio acvAo •:• ^Acn vyr^.io .K*iix.o r<&A>o 
r^.TMAK' rg'JK 1 h lo r^'i-^i rtfjL.lK' .t-ml-s .r..-x u.t .KLa-JcO^ 
5 •: iuK'v.i 

duKlaju .nu.i .rtisa^ .la*. crA ^-»ii» cdl*iA> ^.i acrA 

iO •:• ^»v»H^Aca Autfanio &v»r^"i^.i :w*s.i ^jCUoAo 
v?\ -* \^ vwK* ^-.vsor^ix-sn JK-*r^°k\ \x x -an ^_».i ^^aaco 

T^'TX T, .TMl=3 fc»TJSOr*$OM ^».1 «^OJCTJ pe^iurf 

.r^waia ."iK'K'ia .r<j=az.i r£sax~ vyp^ &ut<^mia taiK^n 

rdtfioia^.i r^Vaix-i r<A ^As, ^taitV •:• ^Aon vyK'.io ^\a\o 

I5&ua£afi0 cao^\ ^».i ^ui^ar<o .K&cusiawi .JUCUjoa "WciAr^.i a era 

.sa& ^x-»"vsar<'a .r^^cuii-^.i ^UAaao ."'c&ir^'re' kLsxjls 

20. f) fClaJ rd=air£a >=>9^ ^•vsarC'o ,^cuii&.i ^L»cui£*>a 

.K^cuj^vnjx} ^ucu»sao <<&v=A ^ocfu ^^ocaAso^i 

Severus fol. 60 a. .i^^&vsa KL*n rdbaA .r£»b\Ab\ rcAt^ax. 

.KlJilflai^ rfensax. 

a) Math. 5,15. b) Bead ^Ur^ijCO^ Math. 16,3. c) Opusc. Nest. 37,12. 
d) ? e) 37,25. f) 49,3!?. 


52* NOTES. 

r^A.f .icujA &v*«U.v» VSoK'&oa.l Klsa ocnlo .o. rdAo^lA 
rdsa oaAo .A< r^fo&Un^ K'ivx.eua .r^iix. vyi* .&ur£kr<^J» 
.t*Lx*n vyr^ : Au«^.tm »<i.t ncuA iucc^ccU^g© isaK'&si.i 
<k*«Li.UJ isortfic*!:! r«La o«A ..i. K^o\Ja .r£l*. .r^xvi 5 
■U^ \znrtb\ '.rCtSnx. .KiarC vyr* K'ruiAK' cH-r^r^A^o 
Kilo .>coqmii ^i*t-=»a.l r&ar? \±. a) vy4*\.^ «^ .&\*ccU.%u 
c£*a>ic\£k:i rdisoza rdsartffo Kilo . b) &c<L»>:» i^xirtf' JU- K'.tai^ 
K&JK' iuK'.-i >oo vyrt* .Av*ne^rd*^,*»o . c) ,cn©iur<' rC'coWa 
.^rdi-ir^ >-o.t^o (fol. 60b) reL^ox. .^o.vijJO .^k ^jzaxax 10 
VSJ3K$03."i Klsa ocVilo .00. ^^jaJK* vyfur^ .T3^. kLa2ox,o 
.rC.TO^. .r^nn .KSxj .rdav^r^ .r&JcKzifia r^A.i icuA rtllTM 
■vsop^^sa.i r&n ocnlo .a. ^.lAcaA ^ .rt'fiK' .rf^ui 
.n^i&- /WiMfloano vyr^ : KaIta.i r<\n icuA &uc£i&ojcu 

cn&v^x.i=> n^ia.aK'o .^i^K'.Lk. r^i&so:! ^"M^ v^t* - h) ^i^i 
^virO^vauaJo ^v»rdii>.i ijsar^sa.i £a ocaAo .\. k W^A\ dvxa* 
isaKeW /iKWo .r^i.10 .Kl\so\o .t<xs>xx.n rdJV^«< .k.tuac< 

.t^o .fruK^frvanio .rdcL.:n iVi».io .r^xaxo r^i^.TO ."^cnatoa^^O 
c\^ \** r^&tval .^ocrn^sb^ ^.ooxio .rdxjsax. .Jjxraia*. 
&v»kL):u> •CJJrc'ivsa.t Klsa ocnlo .*». rtf&\n_»:ii coi*.i\o . D> K*isal 
&v»r£i:U) i-'saK'fo ."Wt'tum pdav^r^ •.K'rwjA.K' &v»rdAr**^»a 
H*^ Kilo $\i=» . racial r^i ocd r<ij»ioA."l r&snxst t<\ 


a) Sirach 7,11. b) Ibid. 8,7. c) Free. Math. 5,15. d) ^ 96,11. 

e) <j; 102,25? f) Bead K'&VUOJLflO. g) del! h) Isa. 38,14. i) <J> 102,7. 

k) Math. 21,20. 1) <|» 104,19. m) Gen. 24,20. n) Jer. 49,32. o) Read rCiSOJt. 

NOTES. 53* 

.V5BrC*A\ ^.i Au.rdlr<l^a> .r^kixa A*.o .r&l'i&.i A*. r<Lx.:ioaL» 
^o.ijjoa iur^.i oo r<\*icn .ravine* >-o."ic^a Ktoix- ^^o.ijjj 
^,.1 r6iiaa)o .r<*&\cuii&:i A*»o .r£x:ic\x2a rc'chorA^o As*. 

5 .rC.^.iOJt.^0 rc^Ol&uuil A^. eVy n J g a flaa .i 

The oldest authority for all Ms. Sachau 226, fol. 43 a 

this is Dionysius 31,1. Eiol oe K'aisax- AK 1 ^»3 »_ocu*cK»n<' 
xive? Evuoiy^apaxTYjpe!; xal xaxa ^s» r£ju):i.»:i ^A*rc* rdaHaarc* 
7coXXu>v Xeyoixevoi, otov 6*?jfi.o? KV*£\a> Aj*. .t^ ^_ooa»iur<' 
io^op6<; o^Xo?' xal ttXyjOovuxqI ^Java ocn vyt^ .^..icirso 
xata svixuiv te xai ootx&v, evixujv ^-».i .soch .^a^ ,r^xj-s 
jiev (b? 'A6*?jvai. Bf^ai, oVixdiv Se ^' .Kii'ijjr*' rfoisax. Av»r^ 
«)5 dfAcpoTspou Comp. p. Ixxxvii. .^i-WK'cttsa ^-2d ^ut^rti^o.i 

A^. ore* ..iOjjAs .Vu A.** .!-* 
15 ocn vwK* -j. >■%■ .icv tjso ..»icn 

,=>o&\ .cdxvio .r<isio .r^nx..i 

\jy*r* .^^..laxsa ^-».t ^-»"tcW A*. 
20 .cdA.ioo r<L\ct.i ocn 

For Bar 'Eb h raya compare the two chapters of his metrical 

Grammar ed. Bertheau pp. 9 1. 45 — 12 1. 77. Of the authorities 

cited in the preceeding notes, Bar 'Eb b . seems to follow Severus 

closely; compare especially the order in which the different rules 

25 are given. 

a) Math. 16,2. 

54* NOTES. 

96. K^vocuto Bar 'Eb\ i, 9, 6, 17; 15, 20. In Ms. 69 
I have found the following : a> r£'-icuacv .rdiLsq.-io .nixui'o .«&» 
rsd.i=> .K'Auiwrt' cc'&ochnc' 30.1x1.1 nc'&G&r*' Aop .rdxa/io 
f<\o .KlL'W.i Ki^o t^xmH »<1o .t<jusn redo .rcti*. ^-VWr^ctos* 
r£=»"is*. r<lx. £** »_jOorjl*n T^L*il*JO .r£x&»H t^Icv rd»Ho,o 5 
oco Klx-CUA rduj'-io .KjJ.tjj cnl <k*\ oco rC*x.£U£. cCj^oo 
K^.IOA .KljJ.VMO OCO K1&X.CU& KliAoA\ .t<l*aAt rfbuixucs 
i< kS*\ .rc' rdu.Tuo got n£xx.CUd. nc^'icco© .ptf^JoOfio 
oal*.i kCaJxuo am t<*x~a\% K'cVujia .r6iji(xa kLo.ujo .oco 

97. Compare Bar Zo'bi at the commencement of note 95. 

98. K'Av»ocfv& rc'&ocW— The gutturals, Bar 'Eb\ i, 196, 12. 

rc^ochnCAo K'cH-OC.OVu r^cho'chc** ^jlJK' ^.airC' 

.rdw&iA ^*enchcLa.rC co.x.'sa^o^ Comp. ibid, line 17. 104,6 
K'cK-uocK^ cc'&o&K' and rc'&vuQcHjSi red, ibid, line 12. 116,24; 15 
27. 117,8. 

99. For *S4 Duval, Gramm. Syr., p. 176. ^ cvuj is explain- 
able through the use oi ^is as well as Jj Payne-Smith cols. 1221 
and 1314. Bar 'Eb b raya i, 97,1S ,co r£x»i cW*&\& *a» ^m M=z> 
och ^aia ^omJ* colsQO .oco r<i .>,..» rdx^co,^ \ coJs^jl^s 20 

Azs ^_jcuojja.T=> rdsui cteuxsil KL&^ax.t»:i ^ui.'saK' 

.cb^ais »^_cujjj oAo .^L.i.'Wrc' «^cu Compare ibid. 145,4 
from below. On the relation of these two classes of verbs to each 
other seeNbldeke, Mandaische Gramm., p. 247. Duval, p. 196, § 216. 

a) Besides this, the small Ms. contains an enumeration of grammar, forms. 

NOTES. 55* 

100. Bar Zobi fol. 78a. A^&r^ .ja*b\r< n^likorC j» Ajak* 

cars rCliikbttx i*\. -^ AM rd^^oi.i K^.-iocvjA.-i vyK' 

.Kisairtlrj &v»r£i »cb vyr^ .cnl j.*»nSW cuxn^n rdaxo r£icns 

sComp. Elia, of Nisibis ^Us^idt <j\jf in Lagarde: Praetermiss. 
libri duo 71,60. Payne-Smith col. 1696. Bar'Ali ed. Hoffmann no. 666, 
671. Bar Eb h . ii, 80,913. Illch, Berichtigungen zum fiinften Kapitel 
des Bar Hebraeus, p. 12. Noldeke, Syr. Gramm., p. 114 note 2. 
ZDMG. xxxii, p. 749. 

10 101. Compare Bar 'Eb h . Hist. Dynast,, p. 16. B. 0. i, 476. 

Larsow, de Dial. Syr. Reliquiis, p. 6. ZDMG. xxxii, p. 756. 

102. Elia gives here the regular form of the Imperative 
'Et h p e 'el, with Marh'tana of the third letter; except where this 
letter is one of the six following: < i . %. * -^ \ r** } which receive 

15 M e hagg e yana (i. e. 'et h>e k h el, 'et h m e ret &c). If, however, the last letter 
of the word is a guttural, then Marh/tana is retained (i. e. 'et b dak h r, 
'ezdahr &c). He draws the same distinction with the verbs tertia 
yod h — et h hazy(y), 'et h pany(y), but 'et h l e hi, 'et h m e li &c. This 
use of M e hagg e yana with certain letters 10 seems to have been a 

20 speciality of the school of S6b h a. Bar 'Eb h raya i, 200,2 (comp. 201,8. 
Duval, p. 127) says that distinctly: jlsuj *so •jiiiK' .Kliiao- .» 

.^cnTJsa .j^cnvta ^.cmsa i\coo .^^'\sq Av»a orC ^,'.\cns>3 

a) Elia is not consistent ; 46, 3, 21 omits alap h , and reads the forms 'et b, anin. 
et h 'ak h l, and 'et h nasb (but see 'et h n e seb h ) -with marh'tana. Bar Zo bi, too, in 
his fifth kanun reads them with liiarb/tana. 

b) Other Grammarians give different letters. See Bar r Eb h riiya, Bar Zo b£ 
and Bar Malkon. 


In his list, however, of the Imperative forms of the 'et h p e el 
he ignores this distinction altogether"). For the 'et h paal Elia 
knows only the full form 'et h baddak b) ; although some exceptions 
to this rule had already crept into the pronunciation of the 
school of S6b h a c) . According to Elia of Tirhan 28,16 the passages 5 
are: Isa. £2,2; Acts. 12,8; Numb. 16,26. Has he perhaps this very 
passage here in view ? As a commentary to the above passage 
from Bar Eb h raya I append the following extracts: 

Bar Zo bi fol. H0a d) : A-*. ^^c^x)^ rdicuxa .J^-a. r£icuo 

•U\^ r<s*r{ .r^J^coisao f^Lxi^cosa ^.io&oa.t r^'ioflo ^»ii\ io 

rtb^A-x. k'&o&k' ,cb c£i*2kAtta.i .rt'icocu >AsaJL ^'ixa^a.i 
.Jcafor*' .yl±.kr< .Qafioi&rV .\*^Z*ib\r* .Jkzn&\rf .\\\A\r^ vyrt* 
vyartfft .^Art'&c^ .VSarf&rV .jj&JSa&r*' .pajj'i^K' .A-aiv&K' 
^^ysaoni ..^©.ivsai .^^os.i.nj .^j-Ajsu •^-V *t xl> ^ 
^^Hoovsai .K'icnvs? .►a"* 00 ^ vyr^o .^waa^a .^^ji^t^a .^a'iiJ 20 
rdi Vsar-rw ..i.Voasa .rtfV.Y.flo-sa .^Jjcu*»j .K'icujia .^-icuxsa 
^^oicnvi .^T^^aso .^^i\fi^a .^i'ltkiso .rdLl&xaa .^jAsoxsa 

KliijEJsa vyK 1 .r<xj&CD .^poi\ c^casax. A_*_o •:• ^ jj^n 1 

a) See 'et h nasb 152, 5,8; 'et h nasb, ibid.; 'et h 'ab h d 152,7; 153,24 &c. 
b) ZDMG. xxxii, 760. Duval, p. 115. c) Against Noldeke, Mand. Gramm., 

p. 229, No. 2. See Bar 'Eb h . i, 153,9; 154,1 f. d) Comp. Martin, Traite sur 

l'accentuation &c, p. 15. 

NOTES. 57* 

.nCsri^sp .rda-ULSO .rduJ.fSO .ndA^o .rCASajjia .r<L»\>$2n 
. m ^&ca\znJ* .,^__ocoi a op vyK'a •:• r^LarO^sq .rtlaLr ^ . n-w 
.^OTivn* .^jocDTcoaji .^^ocoi^fV .^^ocrxs^.'irc' .^aooijsai- 
.rtbzn^J .c^Aoa^j* .k'&oA^tj .rtf&Aa*.! vyK'o •i-.^^ocalai 
5 .K^Laflo .«&r<d& .t^Ask^} .rtwlr^x. (sic!) .r^inv K&sacai 
A . ■i m .K'Av.jjl.b.i .rc'ivSajji .r^&cdicp .K'tau- .r^iAax. 

r&aias.i vyre' ^i^nr^SQ .1^.1 rtdiA.i r^cosax. b\»rfx ^.m 
K&OJfiiArsaa.i vy>^ ..i\°Q t^U^aasa (fol. Ilia) £ujj£\ r^iu.iii 

.^Acn vyrc'.io .^^ocoio^ .^_acbia^ .^Qaxwiore' vyr^o 
ok' rtf&Asw A* .^^tnco rdi*\ca»3 AnocA ^»i r^iA^cnvso 
k'Aio^k' r£x.& *Acn pa t^.tm cos r£i&&£\2n kA.i ntfsar. 
.\V=>^t<' vyK 1 ..L^a c^LiA^cwvai £u.jj&\ rc'icocu , \ Sn v a 

15 .'isi^&r*' ."i-*=J&f< . Jb.^K' • A\^»f<' .iVM^nf .^fi^dxrC .tv^jbni' 
.A i no I .^pQfi°L i .^ V\yn 1 .^iu .^.-uxJk ,^»y u i .in.T^rC 
.^autvj .^.^uitj .^js.iaii .^oAii-i ^a-uxsoi .^^oAaaoJ 
,^AujAvi*i>3 .r^&jj&vusa .^£vu&uj£Z) .^..Vi^a .r^».ii^3 .^lzLs 
joii rCoEox. A^.o •:• Aaladx ._aV=Ai>& .Aaliu .^alalaj 

20 .^_©cn.iaiL vyt^o vr£»&\x£a .r^i^n'w .r£»iu£ib vyi^ .t<l3Acn 
.K"o>^\cn=> .Keuam vyK*o v^Qoauior^ .^Ocrax..TCLa .^aca**x=n 
•iual oo rdsa.ixa .1^.1 K'oasox. iui^o vK'Avoaaa .n^v^^i 
.rC's-ioi .Tt*s.nQj .rdusox vyr^ .^»ixi&\2a &u«lAgcnT2a 
^Vtrt'a v^Acn vyK'.IQ .^.^ocaxsOJi ^^ocnuiOX .KllaO^ 

25 A\*re!i*\cn5n .ocA $\*a r<2a:ua&i2>9 ni pclj'iurc' r^oa^oux. 

a) C K'&-.»'iA\ ? b) Conip. Elia of Tirhan. 36,9. 

58 * NOTES. 

.bjacn vyK'.ia 

Bar Malkon, fol. 43b: \ 

.ndl^cnvswo ndu\crt5a rd^TCUB Ai»-.l rdJCUa 

.rdXtiSk rd\s rdLzx\\ ^ irvaK'.l ^..l^.l jiaia 5 

.rdx..i«<=j dvAx..i ocn Kli^o\c\ a) ^.."W (sic!) oob ndu^cnStoo 

.r<llx^=3 col ^o.Vi rC'A.i ,ai= orfiaAl >UJCUa 

.rdiaxo AK* cdsax- crA •X.i&^rc'o KL^iafias om^L 

.p<i^K' &ulx.:i ^o^r<l=s ocn o onsax. r^ii^cosa 

.rC'icnCU >!b?li..l ^_G&r<' ^39 rc":u> b> >i.TD crUCUflO 10 

.ctxaoCVSlx. ft i\i.3 ^..i i^to.i >**. k'&wSO.'Uj c) }acAl 
•V»V» r? 9 »--^9'* :5 ^«* vyrCo .izi^- ^sa .la^^rC vyrC (fol. 44a) 1.1 

• *:a*-i Klso vyr^ (.xa^isa ^k' d Wj»3 vypf* i°ujo Aa^^sn 
• T^ e) ^i2aa>.i rdSCUxA.fs ^i\cnsq ndA 

. f) K^uio &COoAx=> jaes&l ji.H.1 >.T»> »<lx^cnii>3 20 

• h) .ioo3 kA.i rc'&asaAx.a rdicuxi &o— ^.i Av.i<* 

a) Ms. Mus. Brit. >ix»&r<'. b) Ms. Mus. Brit. ^oia. c) Ms. Mus. 

Brit. J^O\<H. d) Ms. Mus. Brit. ora. e) Ms. Mus. Brit. ^^.l. 

f) Ms. Mus. Brit, reads this line: ^xSO.Lfi9 ^t^oasa r£i rtfA\CV5>oAx3.ia 
rdl^cniin. g) Ms. Mus. Brit. i£Or^d\.l. h) Ms. Mus. Brit, r<iCUxA , V*> 

•loci red.i r<£\<\=nAxs.i\o . 

NOTES. 59* 

I do not quite see how, in our text p. coo. 14, the verb 'estamk 
comes to be enumerated together with others ending with a 
gutteral. It is possible that something has here been omitted, and 
that this verb, together with the three preceding ones, belongs 
5 to a different rule. Bar Zo'bi in his fifth kanun, speaking of such 
verbs whose first letter is one of the r^\*ioHx£a r<L=»nr< says : 

.ictmr^ .*±jza2k-x.rf .vysaAv-auK' .i.n-.aL&re' vui^ K'.ia .o. a 

The form of the Imperative of verbs tertia yiid h **vu£\r^ is 
io peculiar to the East Syrians. Bar 'Eb h ra.ya i, 152,16 ff. mad'Vhaye; 
154,12 S6V%e. Noldeke, Syr. Gramm., § 176D. Bar Malkon, 
fol. 41a last line: 

.,^»:ia£i r£x.i AuLt, ^3jj.i .jvu&cfa .^abucr* paa 
...iKcu ^»i^o r<L^.ai *JCtx=> t^v**b\r< ^ysaucr^ 

15 103. Bar Z6 f bi has quite a list of such enumerations. They 

really belong to the Lexicon; but see Bar Eb h raya i, 98,28. 

104. See Hoffmann: Opusc. Nest. 57,14. The Commentary 
75,19 has exactly the same reading as our text, ^l+a^df ul^ 
79,86 in the edition of Lagarde. Bar Zo'bi in his fifth kaimn. Bar 

2o'Eb h . ii, 97, 1. 1143. Illch, Berichtigungen &c, p. 20. 

105. Bar Bahliil (Ms. Sachau 305). ^Ju. tV—j' *** ^ r - 
.coisa ctSLttudxK* .>cncur<L2a .otl&xx.K' cvifio \s vyK'a .cjj 
■j»lg. cviflo i=> vyre'a .&jLu ^^c tcncurCsa »<t>cujAx. im ok' 
• juLo c»jj .Ju«>t orasactua.i rdrtsnn ^.mVi, Oi^ K*&aAjLalx. 
jjAx.rC'a cox.i jacaa.i >cn vyrC ov» i=» .K^'iwKlX jAi. • «X^- 
sLr aj'rt!293. The last words again in Opusc. Nest. 46,20, comp. 
83,17. ^Ua.^jJ! oUtf 88,62. ^^s. .vsalx. HjLo cyil L»a_>^ J***^ 
■mAx. 5«.a£. Bar Zo'bi 1. c. r^Klib ^»»\ga .r^irpc^ .ucAsu 


60" NOTES. 

Bar Eb 1 '. ii, 89, comm. line 9. 'Eb h dok u os fol. 138. ..*Ax, .j&x. 
CUniLsa ,so£\ . mA,x. K'&tCUxAxs Gen. 

106. P. S. col. 2200 citing K. cni^£— Read ciu^? 

107. Merx, Gramm. Syr., p. 242. Duval, p. 177. P. S. col. 1427 
gives from K. just the reverse, which seems only to be a printer's 5 
mistake. See the first part of the article. Bar c Eb h . i, 118, 9. 

108. Bar 'Eb\ i, 118,2. Noldeke, Syr. Gramm., p. 101. 

109. P. S. col. 776. Opusc.Nest. 12,2; 52,1; 72,5. 'Eb b d.fol.39a. 

110. [p.r*il.3]'EbM. fol.125: vyrC .re'ii^.o c£oi^ ^ i^ 

w^tww rC-iOSo^ ^i^. Bar'Eb h . ii, 117, 1377. 

111. P. S. col. 675. K cites 'EbM. whose words are, fol. 37b: 

C^ .Klaccsoa ^ochjjchsa.'i 73.tso.\a tisLa r^ixL ,v\^.coicocu 

rt'-vsaaLo r^isuap.i K'ta^ ^a \\^ .vjb». coi^artlsaA £u&v» 15 

ys» cnuiiuK'. Then follow the different forms of the verb. On the 
margin is a long explanation taken from the 'ausar ^Raze. See 
Martin: Tradition Karkaph, p. 19. Comp. Opusc. Nest. 52,3. Bar 
'Eb b . ii,89, line 1051 f. 




Ms. Sachau 72 (unpaginated) ; end of Kurrsah nc*=Hoffmann, 
Opusc. Nestor. 38,21. 

.on. chisafio rC*-UL»cVi& .li ^cj.icnsoa »^__c\cnxaj A.%. ^xonstisn 

^M ^nisa >=90L^<Vcw.i bur? ^ioxso .i<Vulr> re'cVilst nc'.iw Ai- 
.li .>i»^&u .>.TS9 rc^i&M ore* izpr&ni rc*ir> vyr< .jlJJ^ 
.K&r^JL^fib rc*&U3t AaL Aur^ ^..lccsa .^cusqo cKA. <Wn^ .»&& 
.K*cn rd*lx. T^ rCl^cncVil av&=> cVu.K' r£ *20 .^eaa\.£o9 
rtfaut. AaL rc^eoAu.i .^Jl.tjsjpc' .rc*co rduL»c>\& .ia r*2^cnAu\ 
.icaau <Wd Aur^ r£ix.i<\& faa .ix^lJt=» Av. rc^cbcKia Aai 
..ICLula ce*cn r*luucH& .** icrififU.i .^i^aKb ..icatttA .1 email 
^^£ p* JtJK' oapi rtlsn ok* : en .A^cVuwsa Klin re*cViAcV\s 
..^acVctea ^=><\&\ jtJrt' ^Soi rciso Ore* .cn^rtcvXa Av_ .icnfitt cnx&Jk 
.ndi'iuK' Aa» rcllTAjKA.i arc* .rdJTwrC* Aa-o caxsa Ax. ..icnau.i 


.CD. Oi_lCVX^73 ^AkcifiO {*\b\ »^JW cdwLiChA .vi .rsOcW n omnia 
js<>&\ rtLs'-iur^l.i r<sa ok* .cnA\_» JLL ..icnfloSQ rdlTwr^.i pfiisa 
r&'iur&a.l rdso .chVTlftT rtLuuctel .1^ ..icnflal .rtfl'iunc* JlsL 
vv.K'o .c n . ^ax . >Y-t-n rdinj A*rfcv2u..i ,00 vynf ..icasosa 
vvfik-isa .0^ %\a .rc'^vax. ore* K'cWlsa rdxjjJ .cnifsalchr) r£uu\x. 5 
.ta. .^oa/uxn ^oaiaxi &v*=i cH»rC* p.ic\& pa .echo -*«ft 
r£=ji»j u.^. ..jaJLA ctarV *u£\A r^lo ^aaijjLl c^rV rC*ia 
AuK' .u&SkO ^OaijjLl AurC K'io .t^Q .iunC* ^..icCO rdSuiias.l 
eK»rc* p/ic\& pi .AurV .sojaxsa r<".itin.i rtLiia&uao AaL .^aA 

den :co .rtLs* r£liiuch& .v* ^oacnNii .rdi^cocKso icuAs 
•^ocnuLlM «^oi^-l^J covtm\ isflr^.i jure* vyrtf .riliw.'Uo 
ocno .>lsocWr<' ^oensax. Auocn Alsixsa.i rc^a— "i°i ^_cucn 

pa -cv^^.1 >3 : TJM den ^ o.ico^jt rda'iurdl «-^ c p ••^"icW.i 

•-^y^-^r ^• 1 rd^A=»ch \L ^ojicoaLAu ch*a &v»rc* 15 
a^Ap* tT*'*' p* rtf^iU-cxao •^°f? :cw 'Chl.i rcti^i-so .v& 
«^c\icti^.Auc\ '.^ajca : an .chl.i rdL»=3cW .vi ^cucojwAug .^curc* 
►^A^-i >;V??^ «^Oficojk.Au rdziiaa ^ajoo .ch\.i rdk&i^a *_a>. 
•jCXtueu&uA Avxa rcl^xrj^\ .ia ^oaxucHs Av*=> eVurC* p/ia& pa 
.Aas r<ixT»3 AaL .rtjsnza oco.i p»i:»3 pc'a .cKxa re^&i^a .ta, 20 


oeV\ rd^&scW .l-a. t<'&\x.r£&i .Asu kL=jjlcui AjL <-»"icta ocno 
. a) ,^o*ii.chcW rcAi »cn vync* r^.i'ix. ^ .en ^o^VwivJ : [»io] 
o.i.ii^.cVu .^OAjAAocno r^:i v^. vy r^ .^ooench KlA : en 
.nc*cAu'"U>cC* K^cuu ^ or* '<%^ ^ —S^*?^*?. : cn 
5 ctace* cc*iii .T^ .i^nti .»in Aus cr*s i-»cW ha, ^1hj>Q ^_jj-j*.J 
.chJrV ^.soi» rctsn\ v a r^isat Ajs» ^»t cJOrV o>cVi& pcilo 
r*ck»ciax.£io rc*"i»Joi AaL >x*S)Cv ^»t cHjpC* o*£v& .t^ -i^o'vici 
.i\irV isai ^.jW.^Qff »Jos\ AjL .socho .cWar* pc*ic\Sfl rCciArcd.i 
.r£Jx»&v& pcAo .ocW rc*,^!\iaa .ta ^^\* ^*? <W*k' {jcioa. ^sa 
lOchJrc* ^.icuLtfl rdi_»j.t_n ocn : en :o<W r* «u»AvA .tA r*Aou\ 
eMrc* ^..icxxsa ^-ic^.i ocno -A^A iArV A*. reAcnctea.i *n^2n\ 
.ijjA cnl i^JO .,cocar<iJx3 ar^ .cni -a »-> rtAcK&vso.i juccA 
. r jjAo aIkA b*Xr< .wch&O &UrV cc*ia .1^ TX-rVAvi -t* ^ - j=» 
.pa_»cnehs*) cW_*-2> orV VJL-rycVvsa.i rdiH-*_o_flaA cfc-ire* .^..-iojss 
15^-icW " a -^ = 5? cK-jjcKA P&rf .AArc* rd»x»eWa red TA "*-*- , ^ v ^ a 
,cn<\^.caax. crA ^ixjsa.i rel^o-ia» A^. ^..m^so \ ^jsubo K'wbcvi 
chJrV .ucf& peAa vyt-i^-i cKjrc* K'io .tao •:• co\ fU2a»cf2=ao 
.-»*> ^so.i ehjrV j^.iosq .ncisijA rtl^cn KL^cosa p<Arc* rci&A 
KLl' .tmA.i ooeho .p^chAst re'.Tuo JUr^ vA Jt.i& 7 s !! 2 ? 
a) Deut. 14,1. P. S. 779 JL.TT^&c. read .li^Sa and rdllisLS3 cf. 1157 


t<Ao -f+\ bur? -w^kao vycvki hurt rc'io ji •:• vA jl*A 

•prf-aoa m jsjxi*i far? r<Sxi vLa .rf&rf.'i \tr> rf&usto .vA 
cdiiAx ^2*> ^idtdca.i "pxzn Ai» .00 ^sp &u>&A K'vccu AvjrV 
A2A rc*u>cu pafflo .ia .jiu^u iuK' r^in .?& •:• ^uk* ^..ia» 5 
rc'ib .lio •:• rC*iafiO ^>3 t"*^ * t^ 1 ^ "^ ^ vlr ^ ^.i[CD3 00 *=*) 
rdiipc* Ai. AopcT .xjcusa .©& &\JrV a>&vJ&a ...OJ&i-J AuirV 

.re^LZA' Aur*' rtl^arisao -»^**>^-J Aup^ r^io .TSkO ,»io iAi 
^2» ^iA.jjlV^.1 rCLxLaJLs Ax. ^UrV 0k..1O=Q .^UK' Kf^XSTi A^Ao 10 

,ia .^jwsau .r<AoA- od^vix. $v*a ©rC >>s~al ^^5 : °" 1 
^OASa.iJcv fA.'SOSJ Ar^ rtliAco -.K^xLxA ivJr^ rd^o 3 *-^ 
: ^JvaoAsai .rd\co ^crAaA ^jua.i&io ^o^soniho b W.x2»^9o 
.yxxsa Ax. rC&Asx. $UrV pQrdJVO .„JxA iunV a»&& :pk ,io 
.1* >io Ad\ij .^__ocai^Vjrc* n£ ptlla :co .r^A^ai 

a) Payne-Smith col. 2477. b) rdSOa.lJSao &c? 


.rc*cH\cV^i& yxL r-\^i&:i r£\ooi .A m \jL*r£ ___£> 
: co .Aa\*i .r-H^w.i rc'r-u* *sp : co .AcQ^jjj Ar^ rd__.coa 
<Wuul .&uuu [iua] $urc* r<-_vic\& ^sa .^cK.K'i.ix- icvjj-_i 
rcroat AjL ^-cVi&t.i ^».i rC\"ico .re$\JUpt re**** Ax. rC'&v-SO.'to ,cb 

-.enLci Acta cduu»cVv& red 3* «„ h c\M.ina ^».t 4C*t& rc*&i<iu^b 
KLu^^iSk.1 _ a aao.tniA* .* rC&v-sa.ia *jeu^ cVu_»cV\ }oa» rCtacu (<-(< 

rdx..iocubo »A&j r_i < i-»cu» AjL rr"« sn.ia oco.n : coL.i dkcua 

JCttSk .i2ft>rc*ctaa r«£xiuia Aa* rtliiurf ^».i ooo .^AcnA jjSQju© 

kA.i :r_j_50.vo oco.i : relit r-icoa ^aLsocKa JS» ^^oLsoc^j 

10 oco.1 rdsurV pB-l?* pn.i rc*&c\_b» AjL eoL.i .>*&a rC_u*&>Jw 


r__Vrwox. AjL :caL.i ^a-so r_u*ck&;i rt-utch ^j.i ooo .A..iojr l tw 
i-s» •*•*!&**?•'* ^»»a- ^sii.1 ■:• Aifiaso >».isn its r/^cuL»bflo 
^aLki &ua eK.rt* rc_ix.ic-i ^sa : i*jarc* rtl-W Tin >r__Gi 
••^d*u ^uiserfo ._ftlubA .A^Lio ^a!Lkil ^cvLJio j_AU.iV 
«*al*J AjL ,macK»r< f coinage* rfcK-^sa ^sa _c»cacK» ^»j : co 
•^oVxi rC___ .moiuK' coiaxo r-Ac\*. ^9 _jc*cocVu ^99 _jMco 
Ai- ^*» _a*n_sj.«i -A^rV .coo&urjC* coined K_iur_\ rdi*"U»pC 
•JMco : ak> ^Axi J_-rV :,cnoc\»r<' coin^-a rcC\c\_, jso «^oL_i 
^99 _«lAjLi »AjL »c»c\ch»»r<' coi n,vo r£-Aa__, »» r_lHjv>rCiA 

a) Job. 36,4. P. S. col. 820. 



cnixnv.0 r<VSc£-=>?i (?) i<^<\m^*w ^spo .r^&\\ W bo.T-*-ur^ 

.^ojajl ^ojxll --i^ 1 . ^*=? KlLfciaa ^so •:• \ \y > cnc\£urc' 

^».i r^av=» •:• rdai»r<? ^, » \'x ^»&u~a Av*i ore* ^ruLsaH r<£cuau 5 
KL.iK'.i rdiaiGA pa reiki, "i K'.V^SJl vyrc'l .rc'ivt r^.l ,en 

rdi^.i re y . °* '1 *» .i v\_»r*.i isprdi.i ,<i\ M ^.^'ia. ^^viS* 
K'&V-a >,&-*?? •'WA ."UfO.i iipnc'.i ,cb vytrCo •:• rd^ixo 
ijsoKlAi °> V» ..v*o.i » :,;ito ^ i ' ;, 2 .?-?! ^ rtSca .KUnSoa^.i 10 
rCLuidroaaaa reLoi fl&i=> »cn Ar^ : ^oijwJ v.v>o.i r^.-^ki 

• • • ^? •^.v>J«i 

Here the Ms. breaks off. The second half of the page is 
missing. On fol. b we can still make out: 15 

K'.vrC-ao icc^u yxza ^jb .k'sjjak' (Opus. Nest. 41,1.) 

tsnxa vrA r^oeo &v»r^ AAa.i ,cb vyK' ..u&i&x.r^ r<\v»rd» 

coioj &u&-fl9.i ,\\*aaa ,co vyK* $>-&Aa fciaflD b) .a2^ »\-fij>a 

a) Amos 3,12! b) Gen. 30,29. c) 1 Sam. 3,3. 


.r^^rii^-flp r^A\I=3\ : A >» <v> .ca.l^»cn Aufloo a^rdu.i cnia&.i 
vyjjo.T^sol.i >cbo . b) r£l&vt2a:i c^' < ia&v& ■'Vucb.i »cn vyr^ 

c) [OAjJt»] 

a) Jer. 12,4. b) Math. 21,12. c) Rom. 11,3. 



I notice that a large number of mistakes have remained uncor- 
rected. The great distance from the place of printing made it 
impossible for me to see more than one proof; of some of the sheets I 
have seen none at all. I must ask the kind indulgence of the reader 
for this unusually large list of errata. The following list makes no 
pretence of completeness, obvious misprints having been occasionally 

In a number of proper names, such as Juhanan Ja'kob h , &c, the 
J must be changed into Y. In the first part I have written Tirhan 
instead of the more correct Tirhan. In the Syriac text there is an 
inconsistency in the use of the vowels e and e, a and a. This is due 
to the Mss. which, like most modern Nestorian ones, often make no 
distinction between the long and the short vowels. In the latter part 
of the text I have corrected a number of these cases and substituted the 
correct forms. Distinctly Nestorian peculiarities have of course been 
allowed to remain. 

P. 6 to note o) See Horst, Des Metrop. Eli as von Nisibis 
Buch vom Beweis der "Wahrheit des Grlaubens. 1886, p. xxiv ff. 
(Lit. Bl. f. Orient. Phil, iii, p. 88. D. L. Z. 1886, No, 46, 
col. 1641. T. L. Z. 1886, No. 21. Rev. Crit. 1886, No. 51, p. 481.) 
ibjd. to note b) 'Ab h dis6' does not say that the author mentioned 
in B. 0. iii, p. lOOff. wrote any grammatical treatise. Assemani 
here confounds Hazzaya with Huzaya. (Hoffmann, Pers. Mart., p. 117.) 
Baethgen (T. L. Z. 1887, No. 10, p. 223) has been misled by this 
mistake to refer the OsCUSOCUCU.I JU.O& (Frothingham, Stephen bar 
Sudaili, p. 4, who also follows Asseman) to Dionysius Thrax. To 


note c) cf. also Guidi, in Bulletino Italiano degli studii Orient. 
Nuova Serie 1877 — 82, p. 104ff. P. 7, 25, See now Hbrst, 
Die Canones Jacob's von Edessa. 1886, p. 70 if. (Lit. Cent. Bl. 
1886, No. 34, col. 1145. D. L. Z. 1S87, No. 9, col. 288) and 
Wright, Encycl. Brit. art. Syr. Lit., p. 840; 27, On Honain see Wright, 
ibid. p. 846. P. 8, 8 Wright, p. 852; 24, Wright, ibid. P. 9, 12, 
Wright, ibid., p. 852, wrongly connects Yausep h with Iso'yab 11 bar 
Malkon of S6b h a. See the authorities quoted; 28, 569 for 509; P. 10, 9 
Kardahi in his fl£»-lH Rome 1S80, says expressly (p. 1) that he has 
made use of this treatise of *U-*£ ^ ^-Wl. In a small grammar printed 
in Urmia in the local dialect (Title: >cb : rC^u^ioA? > o » yjacoj^ 
c&'-ioflo.t ndixla KlLbzn rdicuo r<lL c£&aLs9.i red* >>\s.) 
I find many of the rules given by Elia word for word. Bar Zo'bi 
seems also to have been used; ibid. 1. 30. cf. Wright, loc. cit., p. 852; 
P. 13, note c) add.: Abbeloos, Acta Sancti Maris, p. 23; P. 15, 9. Prof. 
Noldeke suggests to me to read: [? **lcn] ^^Jurf A& A^. &>al^s 
oi&X. crA.i; 19, Nold. K'&v-J^iSa p»n. P. 16, 7 Nold. Kardaha; 
P. 18, 2 Nold. ^luCU ,V» ; 26, ff. compare P. S. cat. 45. P. 22, note c) add : 
Wright, Some Apoc. Psalms in Sy riac (Reprinted from PSB A June 1 8 8 7) p. 1 ; 
P. 23 last line add: The example cited by Assem. does really occur. 47, 21 ; 
P. 24, note c), Nold. : Del. last part; the subject begins with "thy unworthy 
Elia". P. 25, del. note a) Prof. Duval writes: "r?&\ i Y \ n r*ao est 
exacte et signifie "des regies de conduite", litt. "de choses dirigeantes", 
cf. B. O. iii, 1, p. 343b et iii, 2, 901. Comp. also B. O. iii, p. 182. 
Hoffmann, De Hermeneuticis 211, 25; P. 26, note a) d h ab he he(i)n; 
P. 34, 12 zelg H e; 29, z e kip h ta; P. 35, 17 ne'badK P. 37, 1 patHra. 
P. 38, 9 'izep h ; 10 mettul-, 14 'ab h dan(i), barr e k h an(i) ; 15 kad e $an{i). 
P. 39, 5 har(r)an(i), m e har(r)m; 9 toa(m)marm e rdne ; 20 aUe(t)tan; note a) 
add. Kardahi f Uo.l/l p. 61, 20. P. 40, 2 mct h ya{h)bin &c. P. 41, 2 
ieal e mekb e ran(i) ; 4 prutd e ka; 7 neht e p h 6nak h ; 8 neht e p h an(i). P. 43, note b) 
read Sirach 8,7 (ed. Lag., p. 8); note c) add. cf. Notes p. 52, 10. Bar 
'Eb h . i, 26, 17. P. 45,8 d ht kesaryci. P. 46, 7 Satana. 

Notes p. 1* add. 'Ab h dis6 r , Pardaisa d h a'den (Ms. Amer. Or. Soc.) 
in explanation of the Prooemium: ruJbaSto >_»i^ca • A " ■V** !W *** 1 tN^ 
(P. S. 784 r£&cus&\&sa Ato^ib). P. S. catal. col. 516, 518. B. 
O. iii, 139, 144. Bar *Eb b . i, 7,22; 44,20 &c. Frothingham. Bar 
Sudaili 42, 18. Elia of Tirhan 6, 16; 8,2. P. 2* note a) add. cf. 
Kautzsch, Gram. d. Bibl. Aram., p. 20, note 2. Levy, Talm. W. B., iii, 495. 


P. 5*, 20 cf. Acts 10, 13. P. 8*, 18 cf. arrawn rvrciK. Steinschneider, 
Hebr. Bibl., xx, 4. P. 9*, 18 rdUKXa. P. 10*, note b) cited by K. 
in P. S. col. 1569; note c) Delete! Nold. "OfuSoi or*' Verstandiger". 
cf. also Lagarde, Anal. 20, 25: 170, 11. P. 11*, note a) Del.! Nold. 

«.ii*M»l- P. 14*, note 31. Prof. Noldeke calls ray attention to the 

fact that this supposition is incorrect. The name comes from the false 
notion that the P e sitta was written in Palestine, cf. also P. S. 2585. s. r. 
r&*ic\a> (but 1974<=r&'i=uJ.). John of Malala (ed. Diudorf, p. 12) 
says distinctly: erstorj yap Supiav trjv 'louoaiav xal Supoo; ot raXatol tou; 
llaXaiaxivoui; u>vojio£ov. P. 17*, 1 add. rfiv-A-AO.VS rf dlcidiK' Bar 
'Eb h .i, 156, 17. P. 19*,22readOpHW.2Ve««.33 > 3.P.20* l 5,N5ld.:"Ffir»\*A 
hat der Gott. Codex >1hsL=>" cf. also P. S. 527 *uao<\r* AriLa. P. 21*, 5 
rCt» -M-5P rVi^a; 7 r^ir>_xJa=3; 12 Ms. rd\*r< Read t^&o&t*; 
del. note b) ! P. 22*, 3 r?b\cs&\t<a ; 1 1 Ms. rtb^Vart: 24 Termin- 
ology; P. 24% 10 so my Copy; read ^lsis. P. 25*, 19 read ,coo.V30^.. 
P. 26*, 2 for 'ja or^ read cob\r£s<\. P. 27* 1 ^p^o; 10 add. cf. 
P. S. 2214. P. 29*, 19 ^1 vyc^ t »J. P. 30*, note a). On a Ms. 
containing a similar fuller recension see Proceedings Am. Or. Soc. 
May 1887, p. xxxiv. There is also a Ms. contaiuing this tract in the 
collections of the Soc. Prom, of Christ. Know, at Cambridge (Encycl. 
Brit. art. Syr. Lit., p. 843). Prof. Wright kindly informs me that this 
too probably contains the fuller recension. Miiller, Ibn Abi Useibia i, 
31 S, 6 (see Lesarten, p. 36) gives the better reading ^U&Lfc ; I see 
that Dr. Low (ZDMG. xl, p. 764) and myself have hit upon the same 
explanation (my Ms. was in the hands of the printer in June 1886), 
though K'oraSaox. is hardly correct. The form corresponds exactly to 
rCcosax., cf. P. S. 540 s. r. >*A=». Low, P. N., p. 225. Head also 
D-nm -(WOE. P. 31*, 9 r^SkJdJl? P. 32*, 3 for also bei read see also; 
11 to ncUJCU A add. Bar 'Eb h . i, 194, 10 comm. to Math. 16, 33. 
1. 25 read 746; 26 oi^. Kardahi also (66, 5) explains simply ^1 
lam j laa-J ^1 J»»M. P. 33*, 6 read 1586; 7 read 362; 
8 r£*J3Cl_X-\a. P. 34*, 1 cf. now P. S. s. r.; 9 read 2173; 12 read 
41, 20; 1. 25 so Ms., read b&X^hr*. P. 35*, 2 .scru; 12 r*&i*du\.1. 
P. 36*, 3 -isn; 10 cf. r^-lV-** Land iv, 216; 1. 25 r* > &\. n -»&v.*~a; 
28 Kussaita. Ace. to Bar 'Eb h . to Acts 2, 9 (ed. Klamroth, 5, 88 cf. 
1o Amos 9, 7, ed. Moritz 12, 14, Gram, i, 19, 12) this is the -Nest, 
reading. Cf. the Hebrew forms sf^sp (Targ. Yerus. i and ii, Talm. 


Yerus.) and srpaiBp (Targ. Onk., Targ. to Prophets, Talm. Babli). See 
passages in Levy's Lexicons s. v., Berliner, Targ. Onk. p. 5. The'Aruk h 
(ed. prin.) gives both forms, under srpnitp also JCpTtEp, probably a 
misprint. P. 37*, 6 read 1797; 1. 16 John. P. 38*, 8 rtfr t r \ ; 
9 ^cut-nJ. P. 40*, 8 add. r£aJU\n> } VJ3CU ^*ick Bar 'Eb h . i, 
179, 20. P. 41*, 11 [rd\a] before isartfa. P. 42*, 22 read 36, 6ff. 
P. 44*, 7 I do not believe. P. 46*, 9 r^ocni. P. 47*, 17 rdlWkK'; 
1. 26, read 75. P. 48*, 12 read 14 recusal y P. 54*, 12 cf. 
Kardahi f V^Vl, p. 61, 4. P. 66*, 16 cf. P. S. col. 2692. P. 67*, 1 
cf. P. S. col. 2591. 

Text. CO 1. 5 — O 1. 10 cited in Abr. Echel. ed. of the Catalogue 
of 'Ab h diso, p. 177. O 1. 10 ajuch&a. . 1. 2 &uso. i<* 1. 15 
rf&u.txjji*. wiA 1. 2 liachK'. f<Sa 1. 14 so Ms. read r<b\ab\r< 
or ^cn&aehK". .ts« 1. 21 so Ms. «^i-2»r<ctea? V» 1. 1 o^oiai. 
.^ note 1 insert B. 

Columbia College, N.-Y., August 1887. 


Kliavl ^^T.wr^'ioa (fol. 56b) ^» ■:• ^msai .AnT, ,. f T»v 
KlxavA re&ouix'M ©oo SO* rdiA^Acw -.^Aco ^vyr^ii.1 

.^isorc' c) «Uiocu. cn*L\o 

a) C vup^.V b) C r<i».i cda&o-i A!\^a ^n«Vft> ^Acno. 
c) C adds r<XiSanf. 

^<nd\ijjku.\.i K'^uiuK'."! ^Lrf Ki\ib r *cn\>n ^..1 .=>©& 
'.• y^po .*l=a .»."U> .KliL=> .KlLo .Klisa vyK* .1CU or^ .frAnc* 
• •inx.."! r£l=>U iruK^KlA^-fio ^.Ji-SorC'&Sa ,ia .*!% •>*?• .|0A 
.^c nA x ^n&L.i K&cuitlxO.i .icuq K&ciuivt:i oo Klxa^^ca 
.CU140 : cu\a> .cul=> .cu.tmci (aw) .a&a .am .ais wyK's 
.»jacv vi^floo .>l=>a .,."u>o : a) ,Asio .400 .tisa '.cuts. -Ajax. 
b) r£znxsob\&aa jirtLax Kli=av\ ^JijsaK'Aco .ia •:• ijAo ai-o 
vyK* ."W&QiVTni.i .tcu K^&a.iisaa .^cyxL.i rc'^cxui^.i.i no* 

.^xik^j .^ixjsb . li) ^».iso3o -^^3 -tA 3 •{'•I" •*»%"> .^10 -r^V 3 

,^-A-l ..i \-*3 0O . e) ^iJi JO .^i.T-x>0 ..«>y0pO Z^iJLoO .»**h=>a ..i'ij 10 
.T»&v^.:i rOoil ^Ji^oK'^so .1AO (fol. 56a) .^ii^-aio .^liptta 
.10* r^A-o-iusac ^»cnL.i g W&a-xJTA.*n .oa oil Kl*»aiA\-5*3 
.^o^ncu .,j\\a3 .._ot*u .^.ojxu .^cuaa vyrc* . h W<^cuxarU.i 

.^1^1 •t***'-* v'^" 1 \ '^' 1> * rt ?. •(»*">? ••^^ ••^^ ••^4 J 

^axsj .^tiii .^iiu .^i\«vi) 15 

K'.l.syA &\*r£xr<.i.\n .^JlJSlK'Aoa .1A .10*0 .sAk* ^2B i. \y » 

•:• aaflja .aini. .ct^lx vyr^ ..irXy&vsa KLAK' .^.co^cui^JaxU.t 
r>cA .^oKlo* KLx=3\\ ^^JtJsnrtbiza .iswo >nwn . »\ nif . iliax. 20 
vy.K' .rc\. "i »frvJ=3 Kilns' "rc^Q-a-liJM.l .1CU k W n PpA\&Q*> 

a) The examples vary slightly in C. b) B Kin fl PO\tfV-5H. 

c) C K'a»<V»Jr<'ivaji3.1 ! d) C without copula. e) C om. f) B twice. 

<j) C O instead of .V h) C K&0UlAl3JaJL=>. i) C &VSaCt rtfSOAflS^&Oa. 
Read Kl^JD^Av^O KIao as Ms. Mus. Brit. k) B and Ms. Mus. Brit. 

C has r&n»SO&\bvSQ 1) ^OO^CUlt&.l.l. 


i->^ 1 r£xa\=» r^i^oKl&oa.n vyrf / coxi'i ^©coaiAia (fol. 54b) 
KlLsib ^cal^..n A_\^=no :T^i"Vx.o rtLwiar*' ^».i K'&Q % , % , \ 

•/W^a^K' Au&vAAx r£.Lsa ^*cni^.i ^..f^nl ja.i\ •=»©&« 

•:• ^f^X. jcrsii* .tn£=> • Toi^V •) ar ^ •^ or ^r° • 3A °i= 3 ^»crx»Aur^o 
.jiparfbsa .1* * e) ir<C ird=n* .J±.r?\ -*»r<^ •'* , '5'-X. J^ovao 

rCixua>&$03 ncila g) .aW r^-ii\j^sq.i rd^K' AuKb .cd=*ua>&fo=o 
.tcu ^caa pixa)A>Ao3.i (fol. 55a) ^sa h) r£\i»G •:• ca*&l*> .icu 

.^^wa .^ranio vyK* .-^.t .>- .>u» .&-= aAoia M a\ .i 
15 .^iviaO .^in *•: ^ ;, u. i, \^ .^.T-i-^ . ^"Wil .^^*l .^>pl*j* 

■(}\ -j ?* \ .^ ir t» ^ » t »» ••^v-= • <-»*=> i*\. ^JjjaK'^usw 

reLlA-.n*' z^&^&ca ^Ani=)l k) .^l\<L^o .^Ar^L*. £p i \ Off 
(fol. 55 b) -:• ^A*.* ai*aukcrA ^» ^Klx.^ c^&Asj jE.i&&i&i.i 

a) B v-i-ih.! b) C K'isOK'^USa. c) Ms. Mus. Brit. K'^J O. 
d) C ^oilK'. e) C om. f) C adds rd^ix-O ^U^..»\ vyr^ which however 
is wanting in B and Ms. Mus. Brit, g) This passage is wanting in B. h) C without 
the copula. i) C omits these examples. k) The following in C thus ^SO 
K'&Ofift JL.i&&& *A^..l QOxOQ^crA. See Note 111. 



•: • ^cn-l-W pf.v** JLA r \ relsaca* a, ^A^afio ^»i& .3rd (fol. 53 b) 

.K'-iiSa A:*. ^ ."ici-so ^x.'isiK'i rdsao •:• rCii^ A^.o 
A*. ^,\t v .icae-so .\rO^ ^x.i.sar*':! Klsoo : K'&a-v-'iiJo Ajwo 5 

•:• p^V^sao- &\*a. c) oc^ K'ox*! A^o .rdLy^-oia 

.^"USa ir^sa e) £p ^i^anCo* ■:• i' d) t » (fol. 54 a) nf-^eas.* 

^»>o •:• v2^ ja^^sa Aua opC ytxsn \r^\^ ^sn ^ju-tswrcTo •:• iia if, 
rC'&.'V-l oral r^.iwtV £v*A op*' .tr<^ ^tsoa .^.vi .K'v^.iwsn.l 
: r<i=>t ^ .ijjA r^ijsare'Aoa **:i k^OlSo Aa, ^aAcna rt V a ^ oi jj*a ptfli-Acuao Aa . ^ 1 a^oij ._»""iA\_=j r£j < u>K' 
O^aJrt'&Avi r^-SW rtflA ^.1 ^^rt' : peL.^50 ^_r^ TJSOrtf'Au.! 
rt't.SBr^&via Kl3-Aa"t .t*x=» .°^*aLAaii ^»'-i&v=3 n^aH-uK" rCJLail 

*> ( " rtLLACV-flo. b) B 0111. Ms. Mus. Brit. rtLso.l. c) B twice. 
d) C om. e) C ^-J»3a. fj (.: adds •K'^.VJ ^JSfl! g) B i *- \ , ■^n ' 

h) c Kdicuao. i) C rC^aAaS. 


vync* .vswrfcVu r<na.oi .%ax=> .r^AxVsj.i ndut a) ^p (fol. 52b) 

^.,l.»i-sar^.t pdsoo :- g) r£-A>ioKL=> U^ rc'^i.TJt.^i rfcScufcAx. 
.{JU^toxjaa Kla-t^to .zavi-n ytxza Ajk_® r£x±ox. h) Ax. .. 


Aa*. ooii .r^.i.t u.,-> r^^Q-rs— .1 KUA<xaA>o cdisoix. Ax. Ar^ 
jt-iK'o (fol. 53 a) en «ai % V -> v>i_d3.i ya^sa A^k, ^ i i Mftta 

ot^ »cmurcit*} jc_Jr^ jjA't. ^» ^vasr^o :• k) xo •a.\ ) cnsacVvMQ 
•x-JrciA "i.iiL. £\** or^ \ t , ^~?a ..j*A.r.i .AA^ixc^r^ Av*a 
X»» ore' r^T*gir. .ravx. ^p ^i-»iiJ9p^o i-^gAxj K'cVta.T^yirda 




.sai^.} cpirujiA Jt-irf •ai-x (-2?3a :-.=jV2»J .r<?v»cn_i ^3 
jure' iib ^o :ijsa-i earn *\-t >.t5o i-s* ^J» ^x.i.^K'o 
i^as* ,cn\ c^KU'^a? ^pc*o : n), ia»u cncVicviaxfiaaa c ns\^r» 

a) C adds ^AoD. b) 1 have added this from Ms. Mus. Brit. c) C CT13. 
dj C om. e) U .STl^^q.l. f) C )OA»e^cK50O ! See Note 104. g) See Note 105. 
h) C Ax.O.' i) See Note 10ri. k) See Note 107. 1) See Note 108. 

m) B om. See Note 109. a) See Note llu. 

. ^.."Vf^hsn .^.jii^Kni' •:• >&x.r^ .rc^rvxJ .r^wL . y&x.K' :• jjvti 

■:• >lr^ .Kl\r<li .pt^nT .^xsort rt\rf ^so -:rtl2kfV ,<j:i cucn 

.^rjc .rdAcO .rdar^ •*^J<' pa© 5 
durrtl .^joxsa rdao^ia .tm.1 rdb» $v»cf:i ^V.l JS^IO 

.K'^ax.axu.'i rcd» ^kcaJbkO ^can .Wlctji .^i^a.i vyrtf" fAon 
K&a^fe ^-.H^.i ^A.rc'a •:• ^.irexxsa a) r*i»:u3 cd&o^iV Aa-.i 

Jl&o .r<Li_»i&a reiiTj.tia : co .^..icxxsa (fol. 48b) r^&o— ija 

• .vKl it^a\lo :rtfjj't rcHaz^s -."ia^.i rOntl n*''i^ar<'&09 

I have omitted the next four sections, which contain nothing 
but a dry enumeration of the forms of the different tenses, both 
with and without the personal Suffixes. (See Note 103.) 20 

f-»Ttt f_»GoX5Q rC.vw jla ptfaou .jav..i 01V ^ordo.i KLlatl 

k'tm Ja.i rdi^arC .K^aAcri t /i&\sa rsTut ^'iAvs .^ccusa !<•**» 
a) C rc^a-ii .-u,. 

■JJ O I 

.jj i . i^&v-sw^^^jsa .jiA±.b\&\rf .juji\i\rC .-*x*\A\^K' 

r^Llca KlnAO-ia cos ducC'.iOxi&a .T*£l^..?a ^jrda.i rdi_nt\ 

...IWr^Csa rC.ioAvr^Jo .c£io<h&09 >jKLo."| r£l=>tl ..Jisac^ioa 
&ut<i<Xxl&o .r^.ia&xxs .c^ig&Avj vyK* :u&uk.:i cdaraiX d\ci&cno 
jamais* KlL» ^coIao •:• c^.toiivJt.K' .r£iom£vr^ a^ovs 

10 : ^Ji^a^i^so rc*-i %oi r£icoa cos A n \ f^nf (fol. 47 b) 
.A t l 7^>-Sy vyrf .&ur£icua&e» .T»&Ub..ic\ popdo.i r^i-ayl 
•a.&oi-s.i r<\jso ^»cnuV-AO •:• A-^JLs^tr*' .A-aJLiAv-J 
aAoia ..l»&\^..ia ^artlia.l KLlail .^Jfcsartfiea ."^ .ucaLi&c^ 
ja^oia iu^Oa&o .^Jcar^ioa r^caJLs&O .f<ca_V_=»Av_»j 

i5^Aai=J.l cdl» ^orA^o ♦ t<iiJ^&r<' .K'&v&adv'f .K'cnuLtj&cf 
OAois .r»&\^..ia jarCa* r<Li=>il ^TSontfA^sa .ta .»\av*»Av^ 

2<j.rtfi>rtfo .&u£a vyK' .^JjsflrtfoASO cos.! acb Kla^ais (^i\vui 
K'.-U) Aa r^isoK'Axsa rdJAcna ..^.v^infa b) .»Aix.r^ ..MAT.rfo .Jwiua 
.^ardi.ia .rdaisarc' vix.1 .cdstair^ *jAcn c&JUs ccditf ^laj ^99 
.r<a\r<f <-6\ocsn .bsosm .Aird=a .&u» vKU.Tocc^.ta .Ttdxx.ia 
.^xkt-SO ..» :ow..i „x:U .^.."i* .^..i» :i^*i .r^rdl r^A\r^ 

a) Prom here until r^ilOOVX.^ 1. 9 is wanting in C. b) C om. 

*A iciucVir*' 0!k0i3.i KlVsb ^.cni&Q .^j^cntfxsa rtli r&ix..lO 
icu»0uo icu>o\z*> .avoirs :t»cW:icv porfjoi r4Lir>\l .Jhartf'&ca 
°r<Aia ^»cnl&o .inv.,.1 rdl=\ v^»rf 0v*K':ic\cl&o . ^^JisoK'tfVSa 
..l»0\^ ^jKLd* Kii=i\ ^Jisar^ooa :** .^CUJ^r^ ja^oiai 
:nfaS»b\rt ov»rC:iGA&a .^Joarf^ca rtfciocroa r^cxuchsa ja^ois 5 
^TSoK'OVSO rd=L&oi=3 cos %20rdr\r< J3AOV3.1 rtf\» b) ^»cnl^c\ 
so .T»0V^..i rdl=>\\o ,J&\r< aLj ^oj.'SO **=> *»r<Sai r£i=»\l 
r*Ls0va>=> : cdicuxj ndJcors o\A rdJioA&s ^>.i rdVs) .^_cu^ 
r^Licna cos ja:ui0ir^ ^a^ai=».i rdjia ^»cnl£.a ..=>chA dna-.i 
.\_» (fol. 45b) ^ordjon k' i t>\A .^Jyjyirtb^sQ rdsuaoi 10 
{-»:t K'.tcuxa .ja.iracra c) .jj.i=cWia en KLn cdJ»car> .ov»r<':icui&a 

pedib ^cfA&o ■:- 8) ,^'>^'^ •5^^'!?' ••= 3 ^*^ rc ' -"i*^^? .a^oir? 
>r<5o^ rdissA m ^JJL2Xr*b>£a j* .tSksbu*? •>\cV>chre' o^oiaa 
rda>=>0U .rCla,~>cWsq .rO^cbcKa .?^^cb«09 .a^ois .^*cK&..iO]5 
^ooi&o .KLA.ic^rc* .r^l^cncWr*' -a^ois ^».i rV.KXaStO ..jtSOrVevsa 
ToKlo.i r<Lisi\ ^Jjj»rc*cKso x* ..aca»ehc^ .a^oi-a* rtiljsa 
<-.* rdAiJo .^Jisone'ov'sa .*=>ax»crua ..acaichs» aaais :i*«v^:io chio-.l rdacrvjes rdJCUl-o r<L)aaa ckA n KL»a_oa-£i.i 
ni'cKjjacKA rctA rtfcWochrcLa rdJiCUa Kllcn.i rdAj=x) ^* collet 20 
rdl» ^tcnl&a -.^oco h W«l rC\"so iflo^. g) ^» "W^ 30 •: < s«Ax. , »> 
..JjsarCcNSO kLjctd rCLasta-ta cars .ji»\A\cV»rC* (fol.46a) jaA.oi=»n 
.TJSOreli jtlrc* vwrc* crv.K'.'iCUaSkO ^.ch^ ^ordo.t rdl_=»U 

a) C om. b) C without tbe copula, c) C om. en and reads J3 3=30X20.1. 
d) C .PSraOxrC*! e) See note 102. f) C rC*.1CUaA.1. g) B om. h) Ms. Mus. 
Brit, omits this word, which gives the better reading. 

e \l±&i\r< .A^K&r^ A^Su.rf .^^t* v^r* d) V?^r? ^n&r* 
cai&v=>.ia r^aia rfjco.i ndlib ^cal^n A..i£»al ^.aO&v ja.iio 
soK* isa\ OK* a\»^ ^cnuicuui o&o .aXrf i&ua iurf.i ^A*c^ 
vy»»* h) ^*inAoa r<lU\co3 .Jfci ar* c<L*. Or* ^^O^ >*50* 
.ioaea^r^ .A.isa&tK' y-AAn*' .^cai^r^ .AaK^i^ .Asr^'wK' 
..asiAirC ..v»i^.^nf ..'usA-fcc*' .-hh^ (fol. 44b) e) jp^J^u^ 

iO e) r«ll=»vla >c£jB.l rell=a\\ .JisBr^&Sa rcSnAoi rdica=» .\ix=»kr* 

a&oia m J$nr&2a b^r*XGun±a ..t>&\^.1 p£a=dU .^cucv .^anda.i 
.is^f* vyre* .AOjo t<i \t,o .t<*- r£»**$va ** k) i_n-i-forf 

7 » * 7 *"^ .7»i^hi* p) .7 . V >W 0) .7.V^^ n) .,^l^*M* 

A «t»V, ft *«r n "iAv-rtfl o& cni£v_s &v-j»r^.l r^ouLsw A-&o 

2o&urd-Xa\ > 5 n9a ■*•'' oi * ^^ af * *-£*_ or ^ ^J** 15 ** ° r *' (fol. 45 a) 

^^r^ ,t .-^ &*** .^xl^K' .Jfia&K' q) *aA&c£ vyr^ .r&iooca 

a) C omits this passage, b) C )a*tt>&l&v£aa. c) C adds ^»1 OJCO. 
d) See Noldeke, Syr. Gramm. § 178 D. C Vk9d\n£ e) Com. f) B om. g) C ora. 
h) C c&io&SO. i) C rd^ULO. k) C iniL&SO 1) C i^lfo&rrf. m) C 
^Jjj»r<ivsa.1. n) uA^Axr^ »l\^\r£ o) C i-VJJ^rf jVwAtr*' ^»a. 
p) >JL££ir^ jOA&rt' pao. q) C >-u\Atr<'. 

.T-»£vx..i r<£u3i\ ^CLAcno ..sAk' ^S» (fol. 43b) t^j» K&j^a.Tn 
d) r^.^\ub\xjy^ -la. .v»&\*-.l rdj..ay\ (boAcoo . c) iua5a -avoirs 


.1 6) - 

} r<ix=>» vyr*"* Aupc'.icxq^ ArCb .^cuA >j-2» 

Ito 10 

•> h) .jju\r£o Awan^io 
rtL»ocn ,ia* .^JjjMK'ioa rdZamJso JxAois >>rdo.i (fol. 44a) 

.a&ais.i reds* ^cnl&a •:-cda\K' .r^co^nf .rtsncar* k) r<i3bax. 

ar) C r<Soco. b) C (^mQOVr^o! c) C 0V*ar^ repeating the preceeding 
sentence, d) C rdgAM&Sq. e) C KLl=U. f) C om. See note 100. g) C 
^».ir^o! h) See note 101. i) Wanting in C. k) C om. 1) C IV3&K". 

.&\ouxa ^oKb.i b) pdiai vyt< .T>^.n rdl=>\l© .&lrt £p %^oo 

io.^oA >*sa J&Xcuxa .v&v^-i rdirail ^OAcno .^Ar^ ^a ^fio 
rf&ia^iKLs ^coJL&O* .i 1 s.l r<Ll_=\ wy*(^ iuK'.lft ,n <\Q 

PCL.OCO .1^ ^Ji»K'^03 r^.icca a^ois op^ .■portfo.i (fol. 43 a) 
15. t^ rdDocifl&sa oaots ok'* .aAk' 0) rc'^v^so.vo ^»cnA\©&c*' 
e) r<l3l\ diOAena d) ..&\r<' £** T^fio K'&viSfl.vo co&o&rc' reL»acr> 
iviK'iaa&o **^A rC ^ 3 JL.V 3 ^ >*=a.i KlaXcui >*» .'U^.i 
^JosK'^xna .t^ b\msr? ^^oi=>i r^llsb ^cnLkO .r^.ior^ .a&aia 

20rdiOcn n* .ocnioasn .a^ois .aIk** t^& ^•cn&io&K' 

••^cuX ^ t ->a ■^ni.»,«ao ff^A itbsn ^ .T»^-."t KLijavA 

a) B aWCia! b) C f<lsvL|. c) B om. d) C om. after Air*' 
we must read Orf e) C adds tor* ^ordn.1 ! f) C > "10X^3.1. 


.^JisopCAoB ^^P9 Ok&oia OrC .jai<BX rCLuail .^rSOrC&sa ** 

. vA"* 1 .3AOV3 arc' .SklpC* rC*Au»a:ui ^»cnd\aA\rC pC1»ocd ."Uk 

Klstio ..sApC* *y» "%!^» pC&u^b:uo £»cn&oA*pC rd»oco .1* 

^.cnVao ArvAa .i=Uh..n pfJUst vyrC frurCacuaAa .rdtiaxrs.i 5 
J» r^^j* k'^v.VmpC cio&a&rC* p^AuLsa kLicUjj rC^cai r<\»i 
HwpC&vso a) .Vk ^atVa^oia.1 pcdsa ^crA^o .pC'&vuQ&i& .x=>irC 
r£*Ocn .ta .^JisarCAoJ ,s-ji*g3 •a&Q'is Ot< .>reljD.l K^L=il 
rcSacn .1^ "i.i-ruw a^ois or< AAK* ^»co^a&pC 
vypC ruAuk.* rdissvXa ..sArC ^sa i\a> rC^usj.tri ^cn&a&pCio 
(fol.42a) &v.pC , .iCUa&o ..^\A "pxsn r£s\jub>sa X* !>»rdn.i rCir»\ 
,£*J pC'.tms rdlCUxi K^cn.i fCAia ^»crA^O .iax.l r<xa\ wu<< 

.^_JisirC'&\S3 pCL»»» J^oia orC pardon pClLsA ^JisarC&ca 
!•* rd^.T-59 .a^ois or^ .sArC rC& ^cn&oA\pC* rciooo .vw 15 
.-1»&v^_t c£i=>tla ..&lrC ^ -C^tt> rCiusa.ixi ^.co^a^rC pCL»qcd 
&i»rC:icua&a .71*2* .alu ^013 ^"i?^» •!* .J*r<b>X pCHraA.I vypC 
pC.\.T33 ^coJl&q .pcl^.l pCacn .pd»rC' vy»pC pCLwpC' o^oia 
.xiu ^i&ois >ardx>.i pCLisjA ..^JisapC&SJ .vi b) .»f ^aotd.T 
-a&U ^pC pcAfC* .jl=>K^ ^aAoia :u&\^.:i pCLlsjAo .«J|S»pC"$C»20 
.^pC^reApC .jcif d) &i» .A^* jaJkO-ia iv*r^icuaSlo • ° ) >=»<b* j2« 
i<1}axjd pCbcn.t pC^so* ^erAaca AvAa ••=?£>» ^«.i acuAs e> «=?^ 
•:• rC&u*o&\& .Aja'jrC j»J rC:u» pC&uijjpC cb&a&pC.i f) pC&uLso 


a) C om. h) C JL3L»rC. c) C Jairvj. d) C i»t*. e) C .aodx! 

f) omitted in C. 

V^.1 rOu=>vXc\ .^Ji^JK'iow *<!Li a) r<L»l Jn_*kOi-=3 >Kl£i.l 
Kliob A *o ..i.Vsa jaAoi^s cK*rc / .iCUaSiO • r ^= 1 ^. ^^oia 
.lo.tss JL^oira .-Tonio.i rdia\l ^JisancTivJSo .ta .10.1 O^oiai 
5 vypC* i\»r<'.icuxa o&oia .T*&v*»:i ndlssiAo ..jisar^ioa 
cC^Oba rdiCUo n&cn.i rcdib ^»coAa=> cKAo .jivi r£JLr>t 

.aLAoin >c<x».l r£l_ail ^Jcartf&xSa .1^ ."iotij ^L&ois.l r<l\jai 
(fol.41a)iaij* icuo ^i&oi=> .i»d\x.:t t<Lxstlo .jfcartfovso icuifia 
ior^cas.1* rcdio ^cnl&o .iau^.t Kliat vyr< cK.K'.tcvnAo b) icua 
rd\_iw ^»cnJL&o .paJLxsa d rCcVujOcKik. r^a&rto c) r<JCUUD 
rtfCUis* ^aACkia >jKLo.i ndl=>\l .Jtsantfioo .** .jOjj OAoia.t 
AuK'aoui&Q .K'cuxs ^xrwava **&v**:i rctuvia .« K Ji£ar<'&08 

i5rd*Oco .1* ^JisorfAoa is*)!*' A&oija Or^ .)qt<o.i rdJLsil 

^cnixck&r* r<l*ocn a* •*s»'<' ^Aois orC .isort .isot* -"i-W^ 
r<Xs»i\ ^Ji^pC'Ksw .ta© .rfiwo&vA ^o i\y no rC&ui^ur^ 
• A\<<1 e) .*:pr<a vyr^ ..^ijsoK'&c** .lard jx^oia OK* .vcHi^.i 
20 .iaJ»r£* b) . AoArdj ..i<\-»*f<i ia-^r<a .aACfia or^ ."i5Joi<J 
isar* UX&OV9 OK' .&urC.iout& ^JisnK'cKsw UkQ b) ,.TGJu«<J 
.iclmIs K'cVdsa K*.tM pa t^so .ici^iy A^oia ok" .^Jisoix'Acjo 
rOeUD t<ico {£* co*.icu*_Ls3 ica.i .Airf ^sp (fol. 41b) A\n 
^^y A&ois.i KllsJa ^cqJlAO .^rdiaAcvi rehears nc'i^OK'chsa 

a) Delendum? b) C om. c) C K^CV, \ a K^cn OAoian. d) B 
rc'&Vjj^'cVu^. e) B om. bat TsKli in C is wrong. f) C ndSCXla. 


fZp fata ^r<^cd\c«' ..ttt\mi .zx&oin art* •^\l > JiAoin OK* 
.T^o .^v»U *=»J &CUMO -^xtf ^f 3 * 2u ^ | o .nVflg ^9 .n.Qrrlo .^r»t 

^rv^iai^^ ^^A c y.ji7i*"t^.i (Ms. 5. fol. 40a) b) i$v=s .JboK'&SB 

^» r^."U> r<'At*iur<' ^acn&o&K' r<bcoA» ."Wk. . .via .aAoia oiV* 
r<l»ocoa .."|>^V2h.i rdiavi »jj»3r^^sn a*© fJ •> r<fcu»a&\Sk ^jairC 
b) .v\ajaaJ .oooiki .iaii # g) a^OTa ok'* ^jOJ r^cwiuj cn&o&rV 
■Aia ..iJ^J -aAai^s or** .^jbanelixao b) .^so^a .jsa&s ..»asa 15 
^.tirc' . h) )ocTiii d) i«UJ ^x&ois arc' .»s»iu .i5^ JaAoin orf ■ *» jamais or^ ^oj ^n a\^so r^&usaaa ^»cr>&\a&\K' n£*acn 
•a^oia ore' ^.ccxxa&x-J .jaai^-i .jcoisu vyK* ..JisoK'fo-sa 

.•UkO t^iAcn .rcCsAoi »aa=3 (fol. 40b) r^xsarfAvsa cn..ncuxL3 20 
<^sn JSAoia .Av.rc'^oja^ rdicuja r^Licon r<lso ,>JiaiBr<&*so 

e) Add. .=L&a%=>. b) C om. c) C ^Okisa.l. d) B om. e) C 
nfTSO^OW. f) B omits all this. g) C .S-ACtijai vykK*. h) C twice, 
i) B «©cia&v-j. k ) c l ■ TnAca I 

cbA»aA\K' rtfaoo&t x± K't2»r<'A\2«:i a) r<ia© .Jtrt^^ . jjrd!^ .a^aia 

ot< ..^.iucn ^Aco b) :rC'AuiaAv-a k ^jsiK' ^Sp rfAu»i»ur<' 

rfacn&\ .ia. .-\relflo .>[^U (Ms.216fol.21a) .^oK3o .^»^» .aAois 

5.VWO .J^^J'tK' ^&Acn ^J99 K'.f-M *S» j^flP K'Au.ijjrf K'&O&K' 

.•\cuxu .^sOkn3 .Atom jaa.oirj ..t»&ix.:i rtlisil rt'tsaK'Aoa 
>&fiai on* Auk'* .icuAs rf&Oba K'.Tu ^t^kAk' .K'isart'Aoo 
o^ow rdAsa ^tcaiAO vpaxoo *& ^,3 AuK'.icvjaSk .paco »» 
.■irVu .irO^ J3AOV3 OK* pardon c) p£lrsil »^Ji2>ar*&03 .^a. .v? 

•TA .vvt^r .JLrtl^ ■• x - r £** At ^ 3 «=^Cvi-=3 OK* .rt'AvuoAv-^ 
•:-p£a,ix.:i rc^a^K* ^» K'.iu K'AuiwrV ^cra^aA\r<' rVocn&i 
• i*»— 1 "^^^ • t ^ a ?. *^^oi=> ar^i>^..i r£isil .Jjsort'Aoo .1A.0 
.*ia. .*&j rdlrf — \j-i ( .^^» " x **i, «=>Aoi-=» art* ••JissK'Avso 
lo.T^a d) .^> ^Sp 00 rC— xApC" ja. ..jxujg ..xk ^sa rt!& rC'^ai 
.^»Av^..i rdL=u ^J^snrfAiiaa vyK' •Av.K'.-icuia, ^JiiniVAusn 

.Jjsar^Jtta .ia. .r£<y=> a^avsn rt^sb ^cnLa,a .rf&cu^iAi&xsa 
.T»&v^..i rdlrjvXo ..^Jiswrf^Sfl r ^ =3 *=^C\i-=> parda.i rdlzavl 
2or?C\cab\ ^_K* r^K* tA=> J3LAOV3 &v*K*:iaA2kQ .KSni o^oia 
K'-isoK'Avsa.i .K'li vuK' »j^_ k'JvJlsw.i k*&v^s&.td k'&oAyk' 
^ooIacv e) .«"^i (fol. 21b) portLa* rdlailo rtUi .t»^Uk.:i r£ls\\* 

a) A leaf is missing here in Ms. B. This and the following word do not. 
belong here. For JC.p£^ read T^OyJ b) See note 98. c) C twice, d) See 
note 99. e) I have emendated the text. Ms. *r^J .V*OVX.3 rdJL9vA 

.ift\Ai<Vo .^..-itcVo .Awiu .^i^iVu .r£lik&u .i^ s K'<Vvi .A&r^&vi 
.An \ n<Vo (fol. 38 a) .rc/cnLp&o jaooXcVixi A\ci\tai •nrtio&JVu 


.rCcVj* JzxBO <\\<x=> .tds .oAtj .vry*^ JSLSh. 't 10 ? *?^ •»<& 

ocKjlk' .r<i -l nl .^cVvjlk' ...». ^ x.rC' .T^orC t^-'tV .K'.'fOnc' 
.,<\u\js .,\<x=> .^3 .» a >>> ^ • > ^-^- -k="» .>a^ .,& d) .>£aoDK' 
.. ^fkT .nf ..l^ssr^* vyr^O ^cVace? >i=»rc' •>jjk' .*Si^u .,."10.1 .>CU» 
.jjO'i&rC' ..jjAi^&K'— J&r*' .ixi^&K' .^santf'&K' b) .e\\*r>K' .A&Gcef 
• A— i<V»r<? .jaii-^r"^ ... ftfor^ .rd^cp&r^ .cKvixYtr^ .K'O-u^K' 
.r^tovw^r^ .r*'eaLs»<\»r<' .A :x\ l r><hr< > .r^.10^^ AOoatVcVrc' 

r^Aso.i rdaL&o-i.i rdxusn ^uctu.i (fol. 38b) A*&sa ne'-Ar*' ..t» 
.rdlMftA.IO ..l»&Vk..ia /Jordan© .ya.^,.1 r<llst.1 

r<iiij.i r&s^cvi ^aa .-u, A* Aa* pCc\_iO:i rC-Ane* 15 

r£is\\ isnK'&ca rdaAai r<li*r<l=»o .rtlisuK'a .iax..i ^\ -» n 
rclJL3\ cKx..iaT*33 K'cVusa ^^ Aa, .t^tocx&io .v<Vu^ ^ar*b.i 


a) B om, b) C om. c) C K'-SOj. d) C r<LsacpK'. The following up 
to lOUr^ is omitted in B. 

.^cuj&ir*' ..**oi£ir^ .^raAir^ .i*i=»^f<' .jp^r^ .uSQcnr^ .b\*ar? 
.A-.iu*A\r<' .jcu*^ .u-^Aac^ .jaijaAxr^ .VJok'&K' .JLsace'&K' 
.^oal^a^K' A ^ \ ^Ai^ ..j.ia^wtK' ..T-j»e»&A»iV .j*-f-^i\A\r<' 

.*Acn «^ooa.irv*r<' ponton r^iat.i t<\sa.i rda^o'io 

..-1.TJQS3 • t \ t T»*sq .iciAOo ..lO.tsa ..v-aisja .»\y? .A.irt' •^ f £=> 
.rOaocuaaca ..%Ats» b) .:ia*acJ9 ..»,a.yBa .ii^coo .rOs^ccw .^uolsts 
.Ktv^Axsn .iijL=i&C9a .r£jL=>d>=a •:• jj^iiia .K'craLaso .a^o.rsa 
10 .j3.T=>icaj .rtil&&v2f9 .iaJr^icja (fol. 37 b) .JiAr^i>»» ..*»cn&oa 
..scnl&xrsa .Ata\^>sa .rfxoiKban -% 9 \i%Xn^a ..^..ii&oa .^LAxso 

vr^ioui^a ..AajLS&cn .rc'oaLsioo 

.^Acn ^oca*iuf<' :v.£\^.t c) rOot* rclLsb.i rda^o-ia 

15 .r ^N-ij t .-icuu .&usu .£iaau ..aJai .reijjj .jlmj -^-mJ 
•KlirCll .J&pr£k .rC^pdl .Atazajt .K\_uJ .i^cu .rCaca -"tJUaJ 
.KtaiLaj ..toil -\o"U .r<Boosni -\^r\ -V^aa b) ..j&*tf »ceaJ 
.rC&iVfa .jjoi^vj .rc'ou>&u iuLS&u -rdiaiu .Acua^J .o>£tiia 

a) C twice. b) C om. c) T<il=»t A^..l. 

^tLrrtt .rc'isa-u© .nd*>oio .Klx=ax.o .KlLsuLO .irons' vyK* 

r c* i «aiTi K^ .t*^ ^Juisflr^ a) .rdiJ»x..! rC^ox.* vyre* « k ©ca*cH»c^ 
K'&CUJ.'U) JL^. K'.icns ^liV.lQXSqo .K'crAr^'.l ©CO KlxfioiaSk.! 5 

^i*^ eVvnSaflp jX.isarc'© .rc'ch ©jrd^flo .lx. j-Lo^.tcmlsj re^eas© 

rdo'vA.!© Kloiiw ^a cu&\jjso\ jure* aU ^ocoajsa.i K'— /icVio 
20 ^zn Ailn ^■'x 3 »^«-^ rcArc* .t<£jcV>-» n 1© ndLircLk^to | 
rii.'Ui.Tw ^9 T^fio .^jpgj&aTu.nml jure* aL rt'cVaLsLLx^a 
^ocaisai Kliaiu (fol. 3Gb) iv*K' ^* rcdsal .^ocnxsw ned^ 
^crlIjculo.i rdJ\o ^cn i' \A©A a,.i *ai \ JLJrC ujl-^-X-99 

25 Aa.1 } CO=> .^•CO^&oio ^»CfehX.CU>© ' ^OOC^GchrC'j rCchoi^'tchcVoO© 15 
cra_=3.i ©en r£JV-= .©en.! ptfi.cC* cdJ_st cW^w.-icXJCtn rc*cW.Y.^3 
e) »4»r<'cV\5a enzt caA^. *Ar£^..i rdao-te ~Aa }o^. .K'isone'cVxsa 
ocbo .rc*a=»\ acn cVu^axsn© .rdi^oi ©on A\i=> r^jsa ^caLi 

.^Aod ^^' va^..i Klbn rdisb.i ^sa rcLoAO-i© 20 

.i<XM ..lO.t .&u2Q .jln ..y\i .d\op .pCtirj ..=>ca» .vs .cW=> 
(i'ol. 37a) jca. .rctsso* ..i»r<' f) .^=»rc' .^ry .rcdrC .3?r/ .re^r^.,cu» 

a) C om .1 rCt^OX.. b) I have added yud h . c) B om. d) C om. e) C 
^.VSnK'cVcn. f) C om. 


^.^h^flff r^vncu \\pn ^Aco .&<<o 

5 0) .p/\i\a3>Ol^«S9 rdAr^ >TS0.1 caL.l | 20 

^isar^so.i &v»r*"o e \&ur<£jr<i^» ^.'•isoK^tvio redo Aur&K'.'U* 
iur^o .4v*r<irc'.'U» (fol. 35 b) ^isar^Kso Kilo &wr£)Kl*^SD 

-fc Gca»Av»K' .dur£i:ut ^isarc'taa redo .^ur6r6^o ^.-ban^oo* 

.K'istf vyr^ .^cai^ur^ .^urdzxas ^isoK'Aoa r<do dv^KS^.l 
^.irwrc'Avsn.t ^juLtK'o .rd'iire'o .r^^'ia | .r^.iCL^.0 .r*la_=>a 5 
.jftcouiv^pf h) iv-»r<lliA.l ( -. , tJ»r<'ifi^« c^llo g) &u»rel»&> n n 1 

r/TiT vy!< .^oax.^' &Vj»r$iir£i-^*a (fol. 36 a) ^urdi.tu 

a) C in inv. order, b) C K&OAjJXuCB 1 c) C om. d) C &Ur£30.TQ. 
e) Wanting in C. f) C G\»r^lA3. The following three words I have added by 
waj' of conjecture, g) C OV»r<lani. k) 0V»K''%^.T. i) C in inv. ord. 

rUk.l ,cb vyK* .r^.lv ioA ^nl ^».T»cno .rci^u*^ cnesoloxs 

25 ^j^ .rdl*l\^ cCAu*:vk> rC*l^nr» r^&ia&ULSa &acn '.r^Ata | 
K'lVii^ : H"V^1 •^oca*'i^\ ^ML^^ixsa r^i^ia^o Kj.iocvx. ^».i 

.nt>fla.r6 .llor<f ^ncniat*' .,cn vyt^ .r^i^ JQaI rd»:ioajc. &IU=> 

cnn^vs.i rdso^^&.i Kl&ix.o rtla^ku^ia .qQq&&\sb rdj.iocu. io 
cnl&.T rdsolcueso .i<,il\i ^ofia&^oa .rdii^icvA ^oca*^^ 
5 a> \ rtf&uu ^* J «luii3 .,oa vyr^ cCacifio& >x»J»A\iu KlLi.CU» 
r<*\»\\\ .•K'coAk' &aA ^ .nS'ArediH b) .L.i 1 \^ aiA^iAr* 

r«2r^A\a .• rdx-.iG-ni pdwois A^jjfa c) .-y^n \ f<X^fiO T<ds>oi5 
''ii^.iaao rd.ioar.1 ^».n Kl^*K' .r^&Vjia.i aaJLsj.i.n rdSwaa^ ^so 

ioKl3^.-icvA .nfti«S^uo .r<*&uj& ^vxao&t&u cnsalcvxaa* .rO^cvvra | 
rdcicno .,cn vyp^ .reborns, pa&op^^u d) «*% V^ -■ 
: r^lAjcnX r?%%i^r£ JLuO.0 r<l&rd& ..ftvai oooq .m\ft> ."Uk.l 20 
.v»] K'ia^ rrtno '.^sL j^x.^\n r<A\al^i rdiiu*=> (fol. 35 a.) 

i5^A»r^J rCxSrf "aoco ^ilmt :vcL2nr< ooiA ^Sp.i [Vii^w 

/ a.) Widm., Gutbir and Trost K'&X.K'.T. b) Widm. and Gutb. A.^.^V 
c) Widm., Gut. and Trost add. Ja. d) This passage is omitted in B. e) I have 
added these words. B and C om. f) C adds cra\. 

&v*irn j^osu | xLt&\r? ~»s *&. »cb vyr^ . .KLa-inS' c<L».iogjl a en 45, l 
rC^iW.i i*^ \\*n .rdaAsa ooaaicn »sa<Ua ; r^.ioco*.i >j*1 

rdVi r^taoxa A^a fZO rtXM .r^.iooru.1 r^^T -iAua '^.i 
5 AA^sa n^iur*'© .r£sa\&\A3 | r<'^OA-iK' A^o .r&oia ^\cC*$U 5 
.^iur^ vyQ.vs.T tSf) cn&also 7&aiA i»&u K'.iaorx. icKs.i 

K'icWreii ^-OJt* K&K* j-»s .1^ 'oob vyrf .Aitf AiVW ^.i b) pa 

•cna.-u^aA&A K'oco (fol. 33b) ArtisLSa c)> .ogo°u\» < M c^-lroa.n.i 

io r^iacuca r£aA'c\x. | caQ^<\i-^a r&ax.* i*^ A!^sa .tsarlet io 

ch^ .KLi^Lio-St ,iclx. Ardxso.i cmtw \coAo .»cna&v»f<' 

.rdi^.ioj& Atvsa r^iapao rd.iocu. 
KiraHco Auaok' cc^cLAcx-n cfcus ^jlX&AiAisb r ^ il . v o 
is:, cb vuK* .rd^jtir^ r<Lx^.ic\& ocn o»£.chx£a .t& .rdi^.io&.i 15 
■KS-U ."u=» tSWr^K'^ >J.TSfl rcdspAua cWacna coA* ^.i K*.ico 
on^ti x,. ^jnvjtoo .• t<iz3 "^K&ick d) ^\ -n& K'AvAo^-a >cb.i 

tAsacKx.fV rdil^cxflj en Va.i r<Lso )a*tt>A\<hJSn ^».i r£oGJaa& 
2o..i*» rdsncu K'ia- re'acno n£xsai rrfcvcn.i (fol. 34a) .,eb vurf | 20 
cK.K' **.! ^j^.K^.'iiaca tVoco^ >sa^» r^LASBCUi .»cra vyKto 

a) C »OT. b) G om. c) B adds cdSoAox.. d) Bead »%^tt&. C. 
ixdNyra. e) add yud h . 

" Aao .cH-r^-Arf c<<V»-_4_At<' ^ Aao * ) cH_»r<L*iL»a , t 

^rc' .iv»r<Uxajj b WJK.>i-iM )o.To.t A__»o .cVuK-aAoea b WAvoCa»J vyi^ K'it-xai) K'&o&t^ K-Jl-_v^03 <-zxOi_tcn\ jcirs ! ._»:* 

X -^ cC re rC ' V 

°r<-a--J di^KU^s-i e) rels>a-*.io d) .Av_*.io c) ..*»c\x»:ia .x.Vi 

Qa-J_2*-crA jcirs r^l.%&i^q.i K'cha^K' g W.!-»r^a .rcfX-i-^crxa 5 

"WiWalx. A-iK" Aao .r^ii\ca_p °r<lnSU cVv»r<_£--_ot re'cK-JLx. 

is 'W&a&cf.l j c^.it^oo vyp^ b) Qa_4_i&enA cK-->.gSa3 r£__u*.&\-S&:i 
k W£v-i*-»ai go A-_*a .thii\ro jaSki cSa~_tcn ctx.a_S3.t-o *-So.i 
Ju-vcVcm -r^ch^i.-xu OK* K'cKn.flrc/ra ^.lCUO .c^At— AiV or*' 
^•.1 aoit •:• rdix\ai3 m) .nPO cK»r<'— j-ai oauia-vcnl iuv^saa io 
r^a^r*" Aao .qbiOq^oqI Aia-...*mr».i K*cVu!Lx. K'cSocSk' A__ta 
.rdu^onsa m) jJ3__U Av.rc'-jcai cnJ«AojtJ3.i 

20 .^jqSLop r^Ct^rC".! f<-t-.\03 A \y *?3 e) ^30<S ^.tAco Af^O | 

KlitoL^ A-x. n) A»^«a a i_a3rcli ..a* (Ms. Sachau 5 fol. 32b) 

.rd-s&uO&.l r^'woCU 15 

25 .^ocniSQ | .tu A-k ^ax&o^cHi.i rdirw.K'.ia (fol. 33a) 

a) C OV»rtljJvxoV b) A adds >CD. c) I have added wan. A <%T»n. B has 
here r^UO. C unreadable, d) B and C without .!• e) C om. f) B n£«__al. 
g) A .1 for O. h) C adds p^iuAx.. i) A reads this word twice, k) C r^AuXASJl 
and following p^cS^olrCa. 1) C .1CU Or^. m) B ^-WsiA. n) C ^».l. 

K&ci&re ansa ^SL.'i&dxio b) .%^.i oeufla&aA Aa, .b^rCissioa 
(fol. 9 a) jb^.o .r£x*so om\\. ^iS>aifi0&&V5>a .rCjAo-Ha Ktirisox-.-i 
er^irca ^vyrf' .^^as&AflofoiM.! K'AAaLk. p^'^a^K' A*. 20 
^.jja^tu .^OA^xri* ^aa^'^vra dJ .»^vuo .^'&=> ^L.-isoT^.r^iiio 
^soxxo^^cso r<li Kftiaj»c& .i*A=> m ^rfa .^Aco ^vy^w c^vito 
^cmla*. ^isnxso^x^rcsn rt\ r?2rJ±sx>ob\ yi±. ArCo* rCsnxso ,. m.\ % 
• »__OaAvil3 .^fcua ^l»i«iV .r^AviiG rCiva vyc^ ^.rdsaijto 
10 h) .^*cn£vin .^cicoAvi.V g) .^A^i.i .^o^Ki.i .^*cn&viii .^ocoiusi* 

.^Aco j vyK'.i.i rdAii.025 
.j.niLflo r^sojjao ^tio&ca.i rVvocu ^»i& A^sn ^^gd Arc"©* 

Qo&flo&ciA.i rdi\oco Ax. AiVth k) ^.i isordi .rCi , 44, 1 

15 <ai»Av»r<'a .rdLLsa^a Auk^uii.i 1} Ajao3 k&o&k'* A* 

r^Aais A-AO .r£\ i \onu3 m Wn«M ^dvtr^&jxil .«*.»»* ~.\-f 1 b 
K'&vuaoi po.ia.i Aao n) .&\*r<^xot rdjXa&vSk.i A*o .^re'^&si 

a) A om. b) B without .!• c) A A ?w . d) B and C om. e) A vyj^. 
f) Omitted by C, A ^O^Sob\b>Sn B .^GcoA^.. g) C om. h) A om. C 
^^O-A&i.l »^vi.l- i) A jJlAgdo. k) B and C om. 1) A in inv. order, 
m) B KL&aj. n) A, B and Ms. Mus. Brit. C &v»r^Lsju&l&, which seems to have 
been the original reading of B, but has been erased. C and Ms. Mus. Brit, add 

c) \2Qr<1t£*i b Wi att,T.,.l i*\^rtf5)0X- v^rtboiito .^GOttAx. {4»UJ»<h&99 
.rt'cfArc'.i oora n£Jac>ia&.'i r<VBmxr» r<A :^L*T2arV:i »cti=j d) &v»rda.Tu 

.&\*r£vu> isar^rcn rdiir^.i ^r» rdaox-o •:• cda^nr*' [»]^©?i&9 

5^Acq Ax. •:-^£t ^kSOxtii r&cir? Av-rc*.! .>cn vyrc* .£v»r<£3r<*\a> 
•:• rc*3tuJ» ^jlm t csa»iw red .- ^ocol ^aSa.T.i c^ensox. A\ Ax.a b, i*\^ 

k) .r^'iia4jO r^-jcun rcfrs a x. vy-rV ^^ooo^cuisarc'ivsttra ^ceU&iiA 
.Tuaa kAs 4\ia Aa>a •:• r£soJA> .jocnuLb. ]) ^caa*&0&\taa .r^Vi^o io 
10 ^'co£\cU'V5*ir<'&\=n=> m, ^jLa&usas»© j ^sdv^&cso .to *x\r> r<y\ 
.rxfxuWei p) .n£A*dy.lO "'rdouK' v>-f<' n) .^.oa*Av»rV rV£vUr<l^n 
.rd^nx. aLw.i cdLo £u=> Aao* .rcSsuco ^»ccu\\ ^otaflo&t&oa r*A 
.«^_cocno .^Aco vyt< .r<lur<&^t> Kl&ci^'ia, rc*cnsax. $\*AGrV 

.relAaj or*' cVcocnx. T> ^ca*&vA.i r<Ab ^ur» Aa .sa&ta v^p^SttxJJo 

io.>4-a .Aa vyt^ "Wi&rvt rd&o^H& rtfenesue ^»cq*\v. wArd^o) 

^stLxSokbcx reA . ?:=xAa .iuso .i.-vwo .A*cAa ,x»^o .A\pqo 

.^ooos>ai-o .^»cnl^cv ..jaco^A ^t** rdaisorV .KlsaJJao ~»onA>. 

a) B omits all this; then reads ^^•K'. b) C om. c) C adds r^»**» *iT 
d) Cadds &l»r<!>r<»^>0. e )B &r£»\OD. f) B and C »or> vyr^. g) C iaoK^i^SBO. 
h) C without .1. i) C K's.'uA ^CSQ.IO. k) C and B nfisOLUO ! ]) B and 
fUSCUflp. m) A ^Jta Q a C qo. C ^as&vflOSXia. I have followed Band Bar Zo hi, 
fol. 17a (cf. note 72). n) -A om. C ^_Oca_*&V_*r^'. o) B and C with s e jame! 
p) B and C r€-saa\~»XG. q) A om. this passage, r) B m ^Ocn^d\*\x. s) A 
r V.foinl . t) B adds ^^K*.' A gives the following in a different order. 


.^jSoAmo ^.l»T>,N.l jTO3 .^JXa.Vt .^Sulu '^. Ip^ . V=Of<Lj 

.^iiaKftoa.'i ^jl*r^ rtfarasax.a •:• r^siij» i ^^ocoAs^. ^caa>0P&&V5a 15 
vyr^ .rdsscOAS rdjiir&^Qo ^^ocnuAurVa (fol. 8 b) .&v»r<Li:u> 
.rdjc*»'"io* .ratios© .r^Av^Afioo ^.rdsuLo .cf£v»ixiaa* .i ^t^ 
k) ^sxu£0&&O9:i ^^ocaisa ^^ure'.^Aco vyr^.ia .r£iv.a h) ndi^ ; io 

^isarVtao 0) rtf\.i ^A»rf A*. <ss ^^Aitt^iea m) .._jKaJL. 
q) .r<^kii© rdxwi p) vy»< ndil sjjo r<lW | .Avir<'_*aiMr<' i»^ 20 
.ix.rdjjiuK' ^.vsarV&oa r<A .^Acn *> vyrVru r) K'cnsax.o .riix.0 
^».1 nrtixa Ax. -.^r^Ix.© .r^aak^o .rdx*>i vyr^ rdJl .two rdrf* 
rdl -Acn u) vv»r^no .rCdiv^AttO .K'&uixdpo .rs^suLo .rdxiA.a 

rcd.t K'cnfixuc Aao w) .i^fl0o T) .rV&uLi4»o .t^&ix=x)a .KS wra a y o 

^»i£30K$>sa:i jA^c^ x Wcrtsax. Ax. a .r^saiflo ^ccaA.v, ^*sa*fl9&t&ca 

a) B >-».T"1V. b) B om. c) C om. B with copula, d) C in inv. order, 
e) C without copula, and then r^lSXO. f) C adds p£\! g) B and C in inv. 
order, h) C in inv. order, i) A with copula, k) B without 3. 1) C without 3. 
m) A and C om. n) B with copula C with Jl. o) C om. adding S to the next 
word, p) B reads rOx before r^iXMI. q) C without copula, r) B without 
copula, s) B vut^.l "i»X: *) B and C rdc&no .r£lx. ^uisorV rd!Lv3 

f<lXM10. B reading, however, rOV &c! u) C vy.lO. v) C gives these 
examples in a different order, w) A om. x) A om. ^ 

.jJi&J» r^.i.TJjA ^1m^ZJ99.1 K&O&nC' A2^99 -*\cn Actf'o 

25 ''•J^ot rfviaCU ^.1^ Ax. b) CUOjJ£)o\ AtVW ^.1 j&jU* ., 

30 Ax. ^-aiiftt &froai ^^.i^ fAm r^vocu.i Aa^cd t^TSanc* j 

.^ik» -uax.0 .^.ia^ rsltajjo .r^^j^'ruo n£cu .Via .K'&saxlaja 10 
5 &vl£ta .^jixjfXn K'Au&a .^caAu r£jo&uo ' .»"-Vt f<*iaixa* 
k) r<'&\-*i&uua3 rdLsb 1) Aa Ax. aoii ^ . -^ . <v»A»fr ^ n ^.^ii 
"'.'iWo n) .^*ixJ m) .^tox. ''..Ji^L d) .,*ax. vyK' .iVAvukU^ 
.rc^vUrC^a? r*ft\UiM ^.1 r<A=*l Ax. . ( \niflO .<Ajdxa m1 Aai.o 

rdJeasoi d WA\UKV\tt> k^vU'U.i n£Li 6\\s A* p) Ax. r n .=,o& 

a J B Aa.1. b) C omits ^».l. B ^.1 K'CUJJ. c) A om. d) A and C om. 
f) B oni. f ) B <h _OJr<'. g) C adds ^_Oerr»Av»K'. h) For this B reads T^iflQX.a 
.^lAcnA ^-iJwj.Tia ^jjrtiA K'&A&a ^u&n ifyaiuo .^fl,, 
i) B and C om. k) A reads rdU^MUUi. ]) A adds VO^XX. m) B and C om. 
n) B om. o) B CtxilX.. p) C Ax.O. B om. 

.r^AvjA-x. r^&uxnsa jA.i Av-.pC'.i ntl^-.rt' Aaq .^Acd vwr^.11 

A A A . . t 

rda vyrf .rtf&ujuoa r<ISk craiAwsa .rt'&ulx. Au\j &v»f<.i rda-r^ 

5 . vOoaXjJjJ.i ivA^ vyr^ AvAp »cn r&iataa .li.i vyr^ .rfi^-Sk.l 

.re&xAx Acus &v*r**.i rC^r** Aao (fol. 8a) .k&S^ojo ,.^\wJO 

f) .^jaaflpo .oaSus&r^o e) .n/fn«Sno .rdSuiWK'3 d) ACUi vy^' 10 
.rC^uxnsa >^» r£& cbijkact .rc'AvAx. Ai^mao Aur^i rsiA-»r<' Aao 

AT • „ ' S 

\**j\^ fcvjrCn rdx-ir^ Aag .r*L2aa-» i ^ flQQ 8 Wi£K».l &vn=act> 

''.^i^q .rf&Su&^o ".c^i&^.i A»^ vuif Asa^ 
rcdujuisa K&a&c*' cni£\so .rfftvAx. ^jJL. iv»t<\i pdaat^ Aa. 



a) B rdojoi&.l. b) B and C om. c) B and C reHa.lOSkJO.10. d) B om. 
e) A r&ttSkJQo! f) B om. A ^^_QW°kn10. g) A and C rfi&flM. h) A and 
C om. i) C r^SUAAO rgfa < Vt < \\0. k) B rdslrtf'.l >*\; c r/»*i\fr.l >>A^ 
1) B r**xa&ca! 


20.-1 ion Kiinchsa cHasow vur^ .rrffcvAivM&Aca Acvo c) oi<' Aa 

.00 .09 00 00 


rc'oSo&K' cni&vao .n^uLc. &i&5Qjao o\»cC*:i K^r^ A^o e) .f<A»o 5 

\ t t \t . \ 

25 h) .AxaLttUo .dvafitto .ndJ^ao|.r<%gof<'© .t^-icwn. .i g) &vafiajao vyK' 
'* \ " " ' \ \ \ i \ 

n rc'&vajttCiAQ k) "? :^\j nn ^ i) .i%,jn'wo .io.TjaaJo ."iHaflSoo* 

r^&vAx. AulL iur^l rtlx.K' Aao m) .^Aco vyK'.ll ^ctA^a* 

. jrv\ ,co rdtiisoSsQ aAt vyK' .f^Auii-»to*A\2a ^iz. obioSso 10 

30 .rC&vOJ^ich&vsa r^i&uxnsn rc'^aA>r<' cni&vsa . K& i \ t ■ Ada 

,,-\. Ac — 

a) C om. b) B -i^JJJLSO.I. c) C cni&\3 .^CloCk. d) B and C without 
.1. e) B and C in inv. order and without !• f) C Kioco ^ ^r^ rCiTOO\2» 
rC'iuJL^loScASJ. g) A and C om. h) B om. i) B and C i^QOSalo iogOUa 
\ •l«v»**}\o k) A without the copula. 1) B and C > "lP PQA (see Noldeke, 
Svr. Grammatik, p. 15, n. 1). m) C ^jAco VyK'.IO. n) C om. o) B and C 
om. p) A om. B f<i."UJ-ia. q) C Aao. 

.t& ctlkAJksa jaca*Auo ,jacn*b\r<<s»&cxi:t r^co ) .sa&xo 40, l 
.*>r£=»cn^&oa .^iaca*&cx> .^JU"i»ne\"i ,cb vv.rc'.KLuA^oo £ur<Ax. 
c) -.l (fol. 7b.) r6a ^...^aacai^ .^assco-j^ "'.^caJAvSO 
.iv3ca*^K'.i »cb vyr^ .(ndijs^aisa ctf&vxl^»to\A\so } oo\ r^*oco.i 
5 Atr*'.'! .vaAa •:«^oiu3oa-»A»r^a .{joofluAirc'a e> jacnuAiK'o 
^n vyrC .J3."»\S ^Klx^T^ .1a rCxx\bKZa A'irO© AWb 6 
% *n\ h Woco^ .%** .r^ivlsa r^an.i 8) cr> n %oi ivibn .rc^aio 

reixViooo k> .^ A .isAa* i] r4b\GAz**\kban r<ia^ts» ^Aco vrwt<n 

lO.AtKb* .^A'lrito ^.iAtK'ft .(bAtr*** jX.isorCil ,cb %/yr^ .*£»! »a> 

,^r* 0) ^W^o .^tr^a* "^'ir&o .^tr^a "^oAik'&o 

ore 1 KdvAx. XJsAa &ur<Lu& j rtbu*±*\b\bvx> d) ^»\ rciocra ^3 10 
.AAtr^a JW vyr^ ..tsA rC^a^OO .r^&ua**»\£\&vsa .^oa.AnA* 
"^n Aurdxi* ^.fiAirrti n) .cAWo .^oiAWo »'^Wo 

.^ja£La> ^Ix^^os.i rtb\ob\r<t Qjn ^Acn ArcTa ; is 

a) B and C with copula, b) A and C om. C adds ©K". c) C om. d) B om. 
e) A and C .aca*A\&. f) C r£X2L»x<. g) A «La^oi h) A r^OCoAw 
i) C f^iuii^&Aos. k) ^\0 &2xA:i. 1) A in inv. order. B and C add 
nA»r<fo. m) A om. n) B and C om. o) A om. B {Atc£lCt ^Alrt'&O. C 
«A\*r^O ... 1 MK'&O. C omits all the following up to 1&*&\J2Q line 12. 
p) C fcjA\ r ^* <l) -*• om - 



K^cCA^o ^."isi.icWo b) .,»r<b * } .»i:i&in£i o& vyK* .o& ,t» 
K'ch.u^.tc^cKjso K'cKixn_2o ocV> cb'i^ao .rt'cKAx. tA.1 Ktr^.i 

15 Aao I ■ K'&.i;-! VO d) .K > &.T f -.saa:i .i\.i* vyK* .il.i >cfi r<^X^^CSj 
.o& »co r^T^cteg .cHv^ cbi&vsa rCcVvAx. a&\ e) &>*r<x r£x»rf 
Aao .rcTjsa^cWa .,\^i\r<'a ..aJ^cWo .-i'i^^ ab\ vyK* 5 
rcft\xi2h.*t^>^V5o r<£vixxi5a aits cni^uao .rc'cKiAx, Ai-V cVuk'.i k^k* 

20 ..crx.^O^Lt.rc'.to J g) vv in\ 7 \x-K'.i f) iu^ vyr^* .eki^ >co rrtT^^so 
'rcAoAVSO .tA.i &v*rc*.1 r^L»rV .1*0 ..crx.dv^.'o h) .»l JjAJj r^O 

•l*o : Wo\Ofl.V»iO .^UKWVuO .K'oa.vJl».i ll.l vyK* .1A.1 >cb 

' • * ' — # • • ' • • " \ 10 

25 ^O I .rrfAx-.i-iM .1CU crxca.-U) ^SSO .K'cKilx. ^ Q3 ch*re*:i rctl**^ 
^__CU vyr^ •»— ^ »<*> rc*ig\^&sq . K'cKxx.oJSn oA» cbi&va 
^__OJ.i cnuSQxc ^AurC* ^j^AtoAooo . K'^vi^aoa ..rt'chju.'usaj 
^isarV.-i r£=no n \nc*$ui.a .r^iusui vyrc" ra) .nC'cW*Ai£ rC^ocW 
-x.vsjrcSl r<lSQQ .rCcal .iiA.*^ 0) .r<£*J»coi4o .r^SQOCDTO .r^.ioca* 
.»ovscol .Oacoa p) ..^_G&\3cn' ? m) ^rscai .jdctx* .ckscri* .cKscn* 

a) B and C jjlJ.I&K'.I. b) A MU^O, C v^.l^tK'O. c) C adds 
).10\j^O. d) B and C without ."T-A.l and .3.1. e) C om. f) B om. 

g) B and C om. h) B adds VscWJ^JL pCo, C >ea*C^Ll.r<'0. i) C adds Or*". 

k) For this C CC*cVlX.O ! 1) B om. m) C om. n) B and C add (JL.i-SaK'.l rcSSSO 

which does not belong to this chapter at all. o) C om. B rtfL*-£bl_£f>i_&a! 
p) C adds f*3CO«. q) For this C reads **soo> .,cix»^v=3cnu r) C in inv. order. 


.,&u^.l .TCU vyr^O .Qgix^-Ck b) .CU»V AO .a Y^ . n .1 oo vw*nfo 
/tsijbo .t^i=>a ->Jut-»j?a [ .aii=>o .»i^uLo .,»i.o .tsav^ois 

d) 1 -%V\Ai*m< rC&a&tr^ A2^» l n«\Bff ^cn* 

e > l^Ai-n* x<b\ab\r* Ax. cucujaal ^..t (fol. 7 a) Ani .»» 20 

\x.^ov.ckv r^a,^.-, k^o<W Aa* .A.xstti A.JAQO jam 
.rtf&ui^»t&&oa Kftv&ui&a .cc&vAx. rtf&uSQ.iact .ontwvctA ^u^ ^a u 
lO f) .ctffrvU-»'ifo rdxs&x&cao* .rtf&lAx. crt.&v.K'."! K'&usaio rdtX^&ca 

15 .vOa,V\o ^JUi'VSQrfn »co vut^o ° >_1&&K'.1G .j*jjA^KVio 

a) B without the copula, b) C mlVao. c) B ^-.CfUJM. d) C Vyw 

^JafllOP .li\^oa.l r^O&r*". e) C ^V.t\*W.1. f) B and C om. g) A 

.W^o^ft C adds ^xWaq-gao. h) C om. i) B om. C ^___li»0. k > c with ° ut - 

*. 1) For this C »CPCU-*Tu\ 1.1Q .jCPCUyjA^I I. TO. The following up to 

vyr^.10 is omitted in C. m) B c^j'iiwisnsnXa. n) A with copula. 

25 t~p i*V. OK ' | rtfll\^Q3 r<£lt K'&A&XS ^calSQ ct'.'tu Aao 
fp d W-ii\Jhaq orf .K'.ujAne' .r^ii^froa i<iiioo c) r<sa^k 
.r<b&V9k9 ^KinJt.iAvsa OK* .c<1LIveu=3 e) r<i»ioA*SJO .r£=a&\2k 5 
r£=i&OJ30 r£l*ios ^U\&03.1 ^AtK'o .KLx*iri= 8 W.-U\&Q3Q 
38, l ° .r^Lao .K'uio .rcdLsi.i* ^XrC vyr^ h) .^Aco ^orx.^uK'l r^.TAxakr^ 
•Ciioo .oyuo aio .cu=> 1} .^>ocn ^•isaK'.i r<sa k) r<lajL\^vsij.i 
icu ok' oo Acxx.^1 t*^ KtooD' .>Ioo .,'vjjo ,'ioa .^isa 

5 .oyw .aio .Ala .f*ocn ^i^nrc'.i rdsa | .rdusa ^Acn.i .Sapc* i^va io 

— -\ . % \ .. . ■*:. «*:. **>. v 1 ^: ^ • 

.vsu idea ^ArC^.i vyrC .>xno .»Vuo .»Too m) .>A=jo .OJuo 

.tA.i iivjao . nih o .am V ^.i <k^*> i^vao n> .»\nio .oAnri* 

q) .Ay*so p) .r<S5a».ia .A^ioo^.i AlrC vy-.K' r »crz»&v»r<' r£Jiin-> 

" ... . "' .O. JO rC 

iordad\A3 ^ax.iovsa.i ^xL.rx'a •:• A . y^o .Jl^.i oo vyKb r) .^ 15 

.rdiiK'.l r^& AArC vyr^ {_»Gn»&v»r<' r£l»in=> ^aJL\&oao 

a) C isa«<l. B adds ^..1. b) Up to r^"U\ftS3 OK* line 4 omitted 
in C. c) B rds&v&n. d) C ^ni^frxaq. e) C ^'io&xsao. f) C pOX.1^03. 

g) C ^*Vl\ > oCqo. h) A and B om. i) C om. We ought perhaps to read after 
KUs."} — PC'TO.l which B has in place of K'VmO. k) A without .1. C reads 
simply K-LS8 ^lAcni. 1) A om. ni) C omits all this. B i&Ua.l, omitting O.TM. 
n) C in inv. order. o) C om. p) C adds r<^,10. q) A and C at->Q. 
1) C without .1. 


rtl K^&isao : e) d) .c&ia>JiG 0) .c£siiA&:» b) n£& v^r* 
f) rV.S»a .cnsnlaxs reAfikHS'O .ttufia&ccA -X-V* "fen^ p£1aa.Ac*j 
^cb&a&rVl aufla&crA ^a.To g) ^») r?k\&zn £p n^JU* r£u&&ca:i 
5.K'ix*l ; tMP<' ^jJorA.i vyp^ a) aA rd^&i^a rdl .rd&*| t^&usa.To 5 
(fol. 6b) h£uu*-=.i* »cb vyr^ .k^AaA.i k W^uAo.t=s ^_^r<dr^ 
Klsao .K'&vA-f-ca-a-s >cpo > \ sb\ rcrA.i .r^An'Vnaa k) vi^.i 
cni&vs ^ln£*.a* K'ddsa.i r^^uiifiai^ ^cAoza l) .=>o& r<i*&&ca:i 

loKlaAoi" «^ocn\c\&9 reiioAvsa ^v»KixnS*J KlAre' rein ^» .T-wi=> 

rC'vnCU »cn0^v*K' K'AuxnSJ K'&ci&K' ^■col^.l 0) p9 nds^.iyO j 15 
15 rda^avi ^»:i Ki^o' v) rtb\Ckb\rf* cnisa AaA TaxOoAxtaai.i 
r£x.T»Ct r) •rtffoo&K':! auso duj£\l ^mao&dca.i* K'voCU q \cao^»r^ 

.caisa A^A 
•:• .Ago ^xlsLco | ^A-i&vsiia ^uca&tsa.i r£b\ob\rt W^-sao" 20 

a) For this C VCCS. M has P^ftl\*«\ and adds ctl&rrffoo. b) Thus B and 
M. A and C om. c) M with s e )'ame, C r<T^fi0.1O. Sever. = A. d) M om. e) M 
om. f) M -without copula, g) A om. h) C rw\Omi^S. i) M >cru. k) C om. 

I) A and C om. m) C om. For KOL&AS which M also reads, A has TX*°t»n1. 

II) B, C, Severus, M reads for all this: .rtf&UX^t&t^Sa (C om.) r<L& &ulo 
nC&V&XnSa rdlr*". 0) C om. p) C without .1. q) A om ^*.1 . C for this rdSkAOl.lO. 
r) C for this rt'&O&K' ^p &VU&A.1. s) B and C om. t) For this C ^Acoa 
^xo&oao ^Ski&sa.i r?b\6&\r? A^^a t n<\cp. 



r£» cV\OAcn .K'AuiuK' r^litcksq .ta .r&iocteaa cVicvaA rcti'iuK' 
J^ r^l & \ SO ^.^ K'&cn^aK' .K'cKaJvmK' coiAva Ardx.1 
.rCcyixa rdui^.V rd&o^i& cH^o* re^bosa.i ©A\ rdxaAos.1 

QBifln^coA ^JLVacVui rtil^K' vciiAxAl.l J3.1VS3 r&CUo ""Ar^Ci 
coAuajoi ,cb vyK' .K'cHJJcVuaLnJ QojUQQ&cnA ^M ^,ca=j rdli&Aog.l 5 
u^sa cpAvnrmo .en cm iii ^sj cnAvLojco .^cp cocmio.i [ .sa rOi^ 
K'.ico r£ctcn rdL»i^ rdun^.i r^sax. .°Au ^»."i ^rC .oo3fta_flp_l 
d .cra^.-ta^a .,ax,cKta^. .,jeV>.i^» vy K' .rCixabsa cuxoAczj c) aA\ 
.reiocn e) r<iuch-ini rtisax. ^Am »^j^o . t cn*&\\*La>a .^kxLaoa 
.vvA».Tajk. .>jAv%=l2w* .isaKla jcik' vyK* .rd^i&oa cva^i&ca 10 

h> .cbcH^i3 g) .v\Avua» °.CD^.Ta^. 

•:• ^n^tw k WcAO&t<' 

A-k-k=a r<^.l rd&SkOio cdiX-CUa A*. AaASJ K'CUiJ* .O 

^.. T . rg i M ^Aodi ^230 cVlil OOP rd.i^CU.1 I 15 

re^ vyrc* .rC&xaAtisa n) .rCinAoa rdiilt m WAAAv=i ^.1 K^ 
.Aurc^ir^o K'&uxoSn A Ado :• •AcKSU.'ia 0> Av&^.io .r£xaj.i 

a) B in inv. order, b) t-^K'O. c) B om. d) B adds cnA\i_^_O0O. 
e)RKlLajai rd^o-i^. f) b »cp »iAi&is >op jJeVi.tiUh. ,cp >JcViixA0. 
g) B adds vv&VtaCh.. h) B V\<H^ir» andthenreads .CO^VwflP .03 At .13^. 
cncVi^irj. i) b and C A2^8. k) A ___eA*nC*. 1) In B and C all this is 
wanting, m) C .1 in stead of a. n) So also Severus, M[artin, J. A. 1869, p. 479] 
B K'tSOK'Aca. C TiOK'Aoo. o) C om. B after A&V&J.1Q which M om. 

.cpiru!ioal\n K'^Twrt'r^ixo^r^ rc^Tjaixsa &v*Kla^ti» a) r<^.iajaa 
rc"ocr>A\ .^rc* K^K' b) .>ca&aa , u> .»cn*:iCU>ry oorxaorUk. vyr*'* 
rfcoho d) .r*xa£L r* > \ i.^tt> r<^cyH£k* c) &vi_.iC\JL5>3 K^Ousa 20 

^.jOocv-SDioi^r^o g) .><xicvr3"icu» ^cno.iso^. ^vyK'.K'AvJaflai^i 

1) .,crsa:n»Gr<'a 

iviK'a* KLaSOTa ^rtloi^a (fol. 6a.) rdAo^ia."! r£»x- coA&vsr^a 

10 ,co rdixo^vsa m)< iȣu Or*" ^Avi^ OK" r^&obw* K\"U> cbi^vri 

.CY3^\.VUw .v^A\i=.t* .vvAti^fle .vv&.iaj^- "VSOrt'J Jtint' vyK* C\A\ 

c^o^K* r*cscab\ n) ^x *^J^ •:• m) cn&J*-\^ .cniut-jn .<xiSv.pjLsj 

.v\&ixio> vyK' a& r^^Jii^eq ( ^.pf&vnflcco 0) .ia* oA\ pB.m pa* 30 

p) .cbAvi3^o .vvduja^Q .cnAuioo .v\&v*ioo* .cn&uAfie© 

lS^crA** r^VDCU.l KlrsAvas s) a1so KUflOK' T) ^*.i q) ^CU» 36,1 

K'iixao ^aaiAu.t jam cuv\iA\»i c£^a^"i& rdJcn.t rs'G^t 

a) B Av.K'.lCtaA. b) Wanting in B. c) KLs^.lCULS). d) B without 
s e yame. e) B adds isOrO JUl^. f) A >cno5|OLri^. cf. Noldeke, Syr. Gram. 
§ 190A. g) B with copula, h) B »COO^ioA. i) C adds >« H£l5kA.lA\»» 
k) C J^p.l. 1) C K*i^.1. m) Wanting in C. For ^Kto B i\*f^ OK*. For 
V\&li=3.1 C and Sever: VV Al^iza. B omits what follows up to ^n.TO 1. 13' 
n) C om. o) A and C .tCUO C\&\. p) For this C itO. q) C om. all up to 
p. 21,12. r) A om. s) B after K'VB&L.'I. t) B rdJCUXJ.V u) B >i. Ar^J. 


cvr^ .rc^l.n.aa.sq icu OK' .r<'A»^-*Ar<' Or^ r^UjL«ai oo a) Orf 

35, i [ b) vyr^] rtf&uiwK' ico K&Q& ntf'r^ in £\sa &ur£&&i20 •K$t~*aui | 

•_».! m j^ -b^tr^Ck .&UJLOO C3CUUO .00^)0 .3^30 .&U&IO .^Jm 

A~a* .TJk . 1 3 N -^r^ OrC ^.l-iir^ Op^ ..T^pg Ot<* -.13^. .3&ai=> 5 

rtfUAO-T^ r^cnsax. ^»ca*AuK'.i : K'^ui'iur^ K&oAW cnsalaxs 
rfcVvlsa ^cni d W<KikUm\^i K'^ijjrC' »^oA\r^ rtlutoivso .rdiajoJ 

f) . vio.-Vii. e) .,J : Tak. .^13^. .cViax. .xsnrdi .xW vyrf .K^vAx. 10 
.cbcv.TMtV .>coo.TufV .^turt' .^.fjjr^ .cV*^a> .eVi^a> .,cno.T3uL 
K'A\i*»r^ rC*A\aA\rC* 0> re*oco ^.n ..^J^ * cWrUx^.cW' •^^H 3 ^^'^ 

.^.13^.* : isar<^ Jtlrf vyK' .r£a£ki&09 K&ui^»t£i£09 k L»crr»cVi& 

'n ^ .i X jo^vsqa rdA^-iAoa* rd»v= cos Tardo.l r^Vnl &V2h..lO£=a 
15 ©n^ ..Ta*re > |or< > .i n N..1 f<3_^oi cWLa ^5B K'cWLs* K'ocoAl :»A 
.i»&u».:i f<x=>\ £ufc..iajLsa rcfacn^ ^j^o m) ..3.CQi&oao .Ta^fosa 
cWLo m) ^» r*i»co<V\ ."»A r£a^icteact pdxXncrCaa rdiv=a ^.aG^ oris 
nC&lso rfocn^i -Ko ..t3^.&u 01^ ..1CUJ(<1 o^ ..van^J.t KbACfi 20 

a) C omits all this up to O0»Pr)%orA line 4. b) 1 have added this from 
Severus v c) C om. d) The following up to AvTStsLcVr*' line 12 is wanting in 
C. e) A ^____ lax. f) A om. g) B om. h) C om. B and C add rd*aco. 
i) The following up to £>:UC\ p. 20,8, wanting in C. k) This is also the reading 
of Severus. B ^aOviot. 1) B in inv. order, m) B om. 

.r£^&o r'V*" .rdaiax-o a) .r^-inriv,o .rd\ji» .rd\iL» vy r< 

r^-uartf&ca.i vyc<f | .^»crusa ntfu* rdii^Aeo H^cfllsni rtf&uimi^is 
<^ .r£isi d) ^99 .t»* Au^iox-sa d WAda».i 0) r<^xft.oif ^o "Ux=> 

5 &vx..ia&2aa rdaAoi ocn ivia .Ktoj ^ oiWn r^iiWK'io-in 
eico.T -A«£i Ax. ^Are^i K^o-iSk ^jocol* p&x.a .rtliai ooo^o* r^idso ne'e coil »^j£ rd\rt' .rdlrsl ocoo .rdaAoi 
cni^us.i rf&o&K'a .r<c*AiAx. ca»iax3.i d) ^_oJo | ..t»^vx..i e) r£xa\ 20 
^jcb vyrV .»^»— ArC ^ GrV .r^$u**Avak 01^ K'Avi^irn 

10 d) ..=»©&oa 'Lojio .^^_o."»jo* -xiAJc\ .i=*»c\ .r^i^o B) pafiaaj. , i 

aW^jsj aVj* r^Ardx. .I* .Alsrca.i oco.i &v*&. oK* ,h£»»i:uj 
.^QJtopc' vy'*' ^»oqL.t rtfHil»i& ct&o^irx' Kixo^ea j • rclJ'i— *=»■? 25 

A*o k) jsoi\r^ -^oar^ ••-J*-???* i>,T . 1 S 1 ?? •^'•I^ • r ^^sT?' * 
15 rViiw (fol. 5b) r£*i Onflow orA ^liazs 1 ^.! ^rctv •i-^AcrA ^asa.i.1 
-Spl »oto .r<$vAx. txuznxa p»:i rt^O^r^r^cvcnoxo .,t*w» ^Acn .30 
&ur*Vxa2a r<A>AX»«\ak Oi^r^^ai Orf* rV&tSuat K^vAx.:i 
.Aooo vyrV m) .Qn*fln«kCiA | poioxs.i rf^aAtK' Jen* rd»ijoiu30 30 
•: u) .v\^»^r<'c\ ..s^i&ir^a .a\u$ilci .o\Aa .^Unto* .&Anx.a .i\&uuo 
20 K'cVms^xcHchsa r<b\\*n<x ausa.ta ^».l r^G&rf t^ocnAt ^*.i .jV_ 

a) C omits the copula altogether in the examples, B partly, b) C rdaJLJ^ 
cdiii^. 0) C reads the sing, without ^2». d) A om. e) C Ax. r£*..10X£8.1 
^l"ii. f) A and C om. g) A omits .1. h) C in inv. order, i) A om. copula, 
k) C om. B reads ^CXanfo and then *Acn VyrV.11 K^ix-O. 1) B and C 

without copula, m) Wanting in C. n) A om. 


.vsoxU-.K'fi KLI.7&Q0 .rt^iiV b) »-.o.i^>o a W&o\"iei*. ^^o.i^o* 

20 Qa*.Ga&orA JCVa.l oA\ rtiocn a) **S ^^p^^.^^OaOW^o ..saGotat© 

. r x*i»9fV^ ,eb vyre" a) ©& »cb* ^rt^A-iAxsi .rc'&vU-^*\&\&xJsa 

^Kte v e) rtf&vicoa:i<&A .Kdiiasa.ii&iQ .K&iosa.i&.i .K&iosa.i^irj* 

8) t »o f) .rc'&xl&sn .tA.i cmssw pa* r<Ardx.o K'^vu^^t^^sn 

^ilA.l a) ,co r<l»io£\2>3 ^urdXDd3 .K&iuK' h WA\\A2* vrusaxn 

25 vyr^ .aa.nQAcraX.1 K'Ausa.ta K'&o&r^ rC^UAsa coa^uK'.i 

rdu^v&^oa .rV&uVx. Qtuxo^orA.i m W£v»2a:*ri K'&o&r*' rC^ocn io 
•x.i.1* rfh i^ " ^K'Ato&K' a) »cn re^&i&isa© .r^xlaso .iA.i 
.K'&o&.'ia p, .i<Li:i.i© : ^JL^isafV.i 0) »cb vw-K" u) .Qeufio&orA 

5 r<liv=3 .rtfsiax. »cn Qoxfla^orA K'ocn^o .oa&fla&cnl.i | K^uioai^ 
.&i*rdi&v=Lni ^©cC* Aurdii^.i rt^ox. ocb isar^fosa r) cas.i on 15 
.rdJLa^ » * / *« -»\^ ^ui< .&v»r<!Ll&\Lh. ©r^ &i>r£u^0Q &v»r£l:u» 
() isintfovw cars ..^Ala^y^^S. a) »"?' a \. -^ '« *i\ , .re&ujL^ 

a) C ora. b) I have added yud h . c) C .SG&O ! d) B om. C P*!^ 1-5*3. 

e) C reads for all this rV&iCLSaaAvi. B cnAvisa.l^A cnfo'ijSO.t&O. 

f) A and C omit, g) A and C pO. h) A rV&vAft <\ * a. i) B adds >eb. 
k)C»j0t^.r<'^."|O ! 1) C adds rdSa.l.V©. m) C Jt.1.1. n) C omits JL.\. o) A om. 
p) B r^^ti.l.10 ! q) This is the reading of Severus and Bar Zo bi fol. 76 a . C 
fr/yy. "ain. r ) A om. cos. s) B &v»r<ll£v^i-xUa. t) B K'isOK'Avso. 
u) C KlaAa-ia. v) C ^tSOrtffcvSO. 


^^aJod rC'fooeW Aj*. A*«W£a a) ^»s "fcacdi | .en 33, l 

vyrC* .r^Wvir^ g) .T 'ain ^Acna* rdicuxal ca^cn.ia cntjje.CLa.ij 5 
5 K^isapc* Av*=j "Wivjj'iuK' ,x*nM k) ^Acoo •:• i} &\»&\1 ^ao ^unurw 
^•cniSQ cC*.T*» r<£l«£k&C8 Qax£a&aA >iaxs .1* .& .A .A .1 .^ 
.rfva-^ .rf&La-s .isoKlJ jure* vyrC* .re*ii*ctea l) cWreUjcjxsxi 
»cbs* rcd-2kJ ^..i *^r^ rrtfsa-vsoc)* < m) rClicaji, J .reX** 10 
a) ,cb r^c^oc^irdl ctA rt*AAiio .rf&ilasa ^ cc\i*> n, oauaa&orA 

10 .re$itr>:t •K'iruita 0) .isorc!i ocirC* vyt^ .QGUfia&ctA.i rf&usa.'ia 
.r^isL^ .KlL.icv .f<L.i.i .re*i».i=3 .rCcWjJl .r<*£uaa 
.rdirc^tl .pdirdAO .rdird^.i .rt*JrC*^= .rfiJa^ • K ' , *?^P .rfvi^l 
^t*' 1 **-J*? •:• Klsuao&A .rdsuso&o .rcLsxusn&.i .KisacgBJka 
caicHso rc'eWLx. c\eX QtuAs^cnl.i K'&usa.ia rf&oeSrC* relxjji&oa 

l5ctu=a.ix> ^SO* ce*lr£*_a .r<*&vu^»lcW&\50 ^Wfak&TSQ ©& Oct' fol.1 
. ttiifti\ col jcisn o& "»cn re^ki^oa red J r) rf&d&sa ^a rC*:u» 15 
:^J-»iii.1 »cb t) v\-»r<' rd»ij3^vsa (fol. 5 a.) ch-.r/i t n*w retire* 

a) G om. b) A om. c) A in inverted order, d) C .— iCa_*0\_*rC,1. 
e) A omits this, f) C adds OCO as also Mfartin, J. A., 1869, p. 479]. g) M inv. ord. 
h) ^LcCtu.T. i) C reads foolishly AvI »2fl. k) G omits the copula B adds 

^*.1. 1) C C^aJtBCSQ. m)B rtl&rd&. C om. n) A QauLfla&cnl.l *ico! ) C 

T»rC*J.l. p) C -without the copula, q) C rC*AAT50. r) C rC\T*> rtf&xl&Sa 

caiSQ^a ^28. 8) C om. t) C adds the copula. 

5 col KjOx_2>3 .aArt' :oeufiaakoa\.i K'cKiSO.vs r<b\ab\rt K*oco& | »_r^ 
.ca_k^3.T_D.i >cn "WcVvA-a^aA cncVtci i \ t\ ore* .orJcV\cu^_»\cVcV\2a\ 
icKs rc'cK-u^'cKA ok* rfcWJlLx. b W&> \ «N *w rC&cicW ^-.^icho 

rdLilli rCcnsaut. -=jcHa eVno-rj Aurc*n . a^l-SaX JQ^ .P.H Q 5 

b> .rc*.nocTt.ia Jt.Clx».l ne'erasax. vwnc* -.^Acd r&cuxA (i-rAx . rcd.i 

10 »N \j r^'^ v -i\»> ^Aco d> .i<A*&u:i.ia .rcijocnj.-io .rcVciw).io| 
..A CO rdiciln e) jjjo.1V=a! r<Isa -2J3 i=Ao .Av»»<3 , U>t<' r<X.O*i.«j\ 
■ i. T . A%<\ .^.oxAo .Oh.cix&=>.i ^jutsoix'.i r£sa ,co=» ■•.-^Jisar&sa 
.rc'.'iocaj.i ok' .rc*iocajL=i ^i*VsarV:i r£=ao •:• rc'& rtf&u£Col io 

15 f A-» , is>3rc'i rdsa cVicv_Acoa •:• [ f W.iOcn_»A OK"] | .K'.iocn-.o OK* 
f X»T20K'.n 8) rds»3 cV\ a .rc^.-rocaA .rd*Hocn..i .r<i'."iGCTH=> 
>.lo.i i) K'cH\A23a\ ^ixwcK^ h Wrd2a\' .rtf<sjo rcViso* .r^irctscLa* 

vsO.I rc*.T.u n ^_K^ rdlK** ..lA.l >."»jd^ l} K'&x \ °> *w A ^1a.mcH& 15 
rc* u»,o n) cVi_»ch-»pCG m) .lA.l }o:w».l rc'eHlajSiX ^i\t-w | ctia.i 
rdi-Acn KLscn c^-ti \&v-A ,cno<H-»re'a .^_x.oco."i b) ^_airC^ 
l\.1 ^a.lja.i go rdAx. JA. .otoa. cet/ioc^K' JxL.* 0) r£xi*cVu:iGG 
Q> nivoo re'cVA&sa rfAtocSrc* A2^a ^Acno* p) KJa_»cK»:i:i 

a) I have added this from Severus loc. cit. A »cna B and C »00 K'oxl&SO.l ! 
b) C om. c) C om. B and Severus jOJlacV\5*>. d) C KLocVwilG. e)B ^o.llSa.l. 
f) I have added this. A r^ilGCfxAo, omitting rf.lG0a»O Op*', g) For this A 
has KLSOO. h) C in inverted order and K W - J*Hn Ot^ &c. i) C without .1. 
k) B and C always write r*ijocK».l=». 1) C adds the copula, m) Wanting 
in C. n) C iuK'O. o) B without the copula, p) Wanting in A, C omits 3 TAl. 
q) For this C reads K'cHVsca A\j39 ,«<^cSn ^co AK'O. 


.r<lji.f.3tJ5aAo .K1m..i.„xj273.i^3 | .-TJsor^j jt.irC' vyrt' .K'Av.iJ.-*!^ 20 
5 (tjAxoAxp^.i .OttAja^coi ^ojxi a) j\sissi JrA^ jAai »_t^cv .r&AiXJSSi-A 
rC'iv-i.Srt.T-fl K'AvL&Jisa n£*A£\Jt_S3 rfAva..l.2*-*tA\A\.t*i k'^v.a.SO.Txs 
b) .i.5ar<3 .xJri' vy^K* .rtf'Av.a.A-.T^ Kl*><kAAi.2»a .K'iv.&.iA&a 
rtb\c\b\T< crx*bv>r? m ^r*(c\ •:• °W&.v^:ia .^cucn-rj.-to .rc^lba.-ilQ 
.r^& b WfrAaga r<!.uAv&A\Sa .K'&ulx. oaxoa^crA.i k'^vxSo.txi 
10 d) .i5orfJi xirC vyr^ .K'ii-x-l-.i^ r<uA£vjLS3G ] .rf&\,*£u»A&a 25 

.K'^VA.^.A.a'io rtf&VjJ-»"iA> K*XA\x£aa .K$v»ivA&G KAuASO 
,cb vy-Artfo* .K&.vs^a.iAct .r^C\.-»V-=.TAo d) ijMr^J .x.irc' vy.rtf 
lo^jr^o :- h WJ"ic\ja.^3.TAa ^.A-i-SL-trjiAo f) .A_»rtfaJS0L5L.t 1 T^a&v&s.i 30 
rdjA&vxsa' .pS^vjJul QQj.Qa.2k en A* rtfAviJSa.To ctfA\aA^ ai^^rtf 
K'Av.xJ-Ai^ rdwiv^Avjsaa K^\-»A\.*AAva p^^vjjso.t-a b WAA&sn 32, 1 

•:■ r&Lh^B.iA'a 

a) t<&l£so. b) G om. c) C and A K'&^ d) C i»i^l."l. 

e) rtf OlO&rtf?!. f) I have added this from Severus loc. cit. g) A and B and 
vsJLl&vaiAG. See note 33. h) Wanting in C. i) B and C in inverted order, 
k) C •XJrS'.l. 1) A om. m) C rtfivAx,. 

.r^&Ofia *n.To a) ^\iu vu» red 
31, i(fol. 4a.) red^i nc*A\lasp r^:u>:i rda-rc* cK»c<*:i ^..nsn\ «.iio | 

.t^oqAt^O .r^caAr** b) .i-SOr<£l JtJcc' v^K* Qa-x~fia-StcnA >.i>o 
.K'crAcC'.isa .isardi JUrf vyrc* .^»cVicn.i K^rc* cVurc'o .rc'crAreA 
.^LsLl AAAui r«c'_a k *rc' iVup^o* .nC'crArc'.il .rfcrAr^.io .K'wArtlrj.l 
c) .r^caArc!' .nc'cnAr^Al© .r^cnAred'.v? .isardl JUrC vwK* 
5 b) .isflK^ jut* vy*cc* ^ \ «N \ t-»cn^&v^a^rf:i | T<A*nc* ch-tK'o 

e) .ix.O d Wcn\'r<da.ilo .r<a&<A':iao 

)oW n^AxLaso ^30 K'.tu neAsu.i rdx.rc' Aa.i ^..TSq\ 

ja.lto 10 

r<*iactea ^rc'cVuix- rC*cW&i^_*tcV\cWs>o t<Au2a.V3 K&ocVir^ii oaxfia^orA 
onitw%crA.i rC*&vi2a:va h) cob\a&\r? r?aao&\ g) ^r*rd\t* .KftAafia ,co 
k'.uj ^j^'^.WivJLAsnA k) cbeSaj_^j\<V»<Ks)0 ° r£i_i&\xsa* .sAt* 
lOr^Adsca ^ rc'.xw ccdaj ^^ni'a j .i.eVu ore* rf&A&sa ,oo an* Aunt* 
m) »cb cduck&ctea .rt'cKAx. re' nC'Aio&K'.'i Qa*fla&cnl jzxo 15 
o) .^K'Qoufla&^K«Sq. < U3 K&oA»i*r<'©cncW D) .j*r<Af*r< , cfcl&sa 
pa* rCAviasal crA rtluxsa.i .^ndiincM .rciiK'.n !) a\«V vyi< 
^Vaa ^^rrto :i»cV\_» ore" .rfchlsoo r) nfococV» k**** »_r^ q) 

rciiA&ofiaa . l) rf&uiSa.ia rt'&iLdtSa KLu&\&ctea rc*&uJ£fe*t&\&oa 20 

a) C g»\<M . b) C tSQKlm. c) Wanting in C. d) B twice, e) A om. 
f) C <K»»<eiAx.. g) Thus A B and Severus fol. 12b. h) C rC*&©cW. i) B 
r^UOUCJSBO. k) Thus B and Severus loc. cit. A without CO. 1) C om. m) A 
om. n) A B and Severus loc. cit. C r<A •^f* o) B om. p) B rcS i rC."| . 
q) C cnusa.ia.i B adds rcAr*! r) C ca*cK*rC*. s) C K'AAaso. t) C om. 


oocd ^^.i •cos ] .Kllkiofio rtlueVi r£x.*aja *=j£i&\ cAa^.i 10 
^\rd=nl &u^ vyrC* .nilsb ^Acn vyK'.Ta.l ,^o a) &\ju»A 
A-x^cd c) ^ » \ »r^ b, .f<liVU. rdliLLsQ.l rdn-»'Av_x. rdaAvA ^S9 

.^Jjls^ ^ ^Us-o. | ^uio ^8 k) ^»ion Qa&fla&aA vyr<" ) r<'.iiiM 15 
K'cKii^fload'icteaa rtf&xujaai^ r£b\i\&\r* AV^SO ^Aco Ar^o' 

10 ".. n «\ ft> 



.f^&A&sa ^'-iatea* p) ^iaca rc'^a^K' A*. Aivw "Waul ..1 

q) r ioa*^v.K'jfciJ"ir<' K^Asbo (-."iochsxn p) ^ico r*b\ob\r< | 20 
A^a K'AvliLsa* p) ^-«Aco K'&o&rC* ^_».i ^i.ochrc' .Ao.ttj p) co 
.p^i^A^ .rCi^J^n r) .t»«<l» Jt-lre' vyrC .rrtnsnx. Jtxa ^Laj.i 
15 .cooi^ka .rdiJaocxoA .r£xao<\&><s .rdiaocvflas .rc , i\_%l .r^i^sLo 
^»cW-icW .^*.i i^JLsa ) 8) ^aq | .opoi^«\\ .cooi^&a .aooi^&.i 25 
•T^-i r) \sar& ju^ vyK* .000 ch\.i t} -^-».T OJcnT .^iai ''icuAa 

a) C .lCxA. b) C rdaicKx. M. r^'ia^..! rCSol'cK^.. c) B C and M om. 
d) C adds Kl*iafiO. e) C ICU.t. f) M without .1. g) B and C om. h) M om. 
i) A K\l iuA. k) B C and M ^l».ia^..l &c. 1) C om. m) C om O. n) For 
this C has ^n^Vflr) ^AcnO. o) G XSOrH^. B adds ^.1. p) C om. <l) ^*enui\»rC' 
.S^air*'. r) B tSBKU.l. sjAomC^O. t) A om. v) C i»9rCli."|. 

^.sAr^o ^cuo r<iio.*o .cdjfiacicnio .rCjaxix^ao .rdlcrA^ 

.rexi^.ir^.1 .sAre'G 0) .icuo ^^OJO* b) r<lJu>oio r£»ifl03*a .r£r^.ir<':i 

L'uvyiVo . f> ^«Vn \ ndxJ^Lk. e> K'cosajcA.i d) rd*j_Ma"i© r<I*noa=ia v 
rC^jocv .AcVArO.i »^cuo .^iflari&K'G .K'Avi.r*'© .AoAr^.i J&\rC 
A^..i ."o.oaipA>£\c\ .i<'i\x.^o .A.a&rC&.i a£\a (fol. 3b.))afli3iuo 5 
aix© Aipi' vyrCb .^.icLxJSQ Tj&v^-.I r*Ll_=3to nfAirn-j -t v, -^ 

;>.=> va^-.i Klista r^\ax.azu | 0^^.-1 .ja-j^hrc'a jafltu&irtfci .ga^.&iK'.! 
..ri-j&vsaa ..ajaai&vsaa ..tslx^os.i a&o jusa ^vyKb . f) ^.?rax2a 

.v»^..i f<li=>io r^*> A**.i y^t^ i^uo ..aCQiAua ..Ta^^u.i 10 

11 A.n= Av-.rf.JCX^i ^.A*r^ ^»ca*^uK' k) ^x.l K'frvxia^O .K'^u.TuJuXo 

vyrtfi .^ftj^iK'.io .>»jocT3'io r) . Axxsaa ^o.-toAix-rCo m, .>isa^pc'i 
^».i K'&vii^coo&frvsa ..a&vA* Aa=> p^ioa reLJJsa.ia.T r*S '- v i* 

^xa^a .^Ljj ^.-p^L.V ^cuo r) $\Mj ''vyK" .^iLcoo&frvsa frup^jL.t 
HCU*-La .=>&\..2k u) A>ia-.n i} rdafrv^m ^.jcn . s) >.!.*> ^.iaa .^l** 
^cucn w) .t<i.a \^ t»\ a> >JL=j re!*-. HcviaD.i k'.tx^. &o°A v) .^m\t, 

a) C .SUr*' VViK'O. b) C inv. ord. c) C .TO* VV.K'O. d) B and C inv. 
ord. e) A without .1. f) C ^-a.V-3-^3. g) B and C om. h) A cCfrvX-OXu 
re ! - l . a t.l. For this B reads rCllat. i) B and C inv. ord. k) B and C ^39. 
1) A AojVra. m) C adds Jfa&lTSia. n) B and C add .1. o) C omits this. 
P) C ^licn. q) C adds the copula! r) Thus A B and M(artin. Jouin. As. 1872, 
p. 459) C .1CU. s) B C and M ^Lj>.VXX.1 &c. t) C rVAva^AvaLrjl. u)C instead 
of .t — O. v) M om. B and ^flOO^^VSSJ. w) M r<lU.A.flalsi ! 

b) .ia*o .as^.ia .or*\i oo vyK* . 8 WcS^*ru»o r^ckafla&a 
..n°nr> r^chJLlx.0 K*cV\jLL^.'*l£\cVvsa rtf&tocVtK' A^^ia **\cno 

.rceWiaAfioo&tcteao K'chiicai^ re&ochr^ Ax. Aivw TJsanii .^ 

5p^\i ^aJurc' ^>cni^ ^»ca J cK»r^' c) K > A\iL\nr?.\\ > AA^cn K&ocVxr*' 30 

Aa=i f) {_»x&&\x2a cam >cb . e) isn^ Qtajac&cnl.i ansa d) ^o*i^ 
^ocnlaksio ..ii&x..i -.1 ••=> .^- g) vyr^| .r^'bae^K'Aos ^ocna.i pdin 29,1 
cViXM ^js'ia rtlA ^K'.icn rc*cV\-Ls3 K' , uaiK'cWsj h) ^oca_=>:! rciu\ 
.^iSkctea pdxJt ^-icVA rc'cWlia.Qoac^cVoa ^..i K'Aiei^r*' •:• isa^ 

io : k W.TLi-."» WcVui^floac^cVisnAa .rcd^ aflocVuinrtt re'cVvii^flooc^&vsaV 5 
oo vy»rc* •:• j_»en_»cV\_»r<' KlL^a_Qo cK.t in.*7j K*cKjLi_^a>oc^ck»Jc\ 
: rc'cV>aj.v3t^=a Ax. rdx..iasao .p£=x\qojo .rcdo\no r^io-iva 
Ax. rct^..ia^9.i .KlnxflQio .r^\ ;\no .re's > is 3 icu vyr^a 
1} rdwc^iox.0 .ncdi^ojco* | .rC^VuCuci oo vyrtfa : rc'&cxx.axM io 

15>*=fl vynC*G .K'.TjaA^ rtlxjJO f^QJ.f.'aV*! Ax. m) ndx.."1G.XiJ9:i 
r^c^oj i-av-g a Ax.* ."Wisicrraio .rdri.ixsao* .r<±ix=i±za* d) ^ojo 
. p) rdJ.iax.$030 .rc^Ws)cVc79.i o&o poisa vyrCo . m) rdx..iaxsj 
q) «aAreb .no* t^-rcto .^ia.Tasa cc'cVcxx.ojlu Ax..n .r/iVanchago ; 1 5 

a) C rfcK-oai. b) C without the copula. A adds J. c) A om. d) C 
reads ^aotA. e) A and B omit, f) C ^u jfrcVuLSq. g) C om. h) B and C om. 
i) C inv. ord. for f^ICO B >CO. k) A inv. ord. 1) B and C in v. ord. m) A 
^..lOXSQ.l. n) B and C om. o) C inv. ord. p) B r^J .13x28 cWso. 
q) B and C om. 

\ _ 

.K'i.r^.i Alr^ vyre' .n^A^aj* ^i."W>.l ^coo •:• Aar».i .ivoo 

.rdna.Vi.l &A.10 

lOK'VJBcLi *-»!& ,COoAv_»r<' K'&Ai-nt K'^O^re'.l ^^^..T-iO I 

f) K'^-x=ii r^^O^K's K^si© .AaA.1 r<lrt. ^iaAeao .K^oAir^.T 

15 Klixx- I ^To^oao .K&o&rtfi c»xi»J &ui&A .rV^»i&* rO^iaJJflo 10 
,cnoAv_.K' r^iv-jjL_.AvA rV&a&K'.i (fol. 3 a) rd^x»o : &\jj&A.i 
rdii.jjre'a k'Axo^k'.i crura AaA >ifioi>i« .tu.i rxfmcu fib 
g) .X»> K'uocus ,0DO<k»r<' r^^ui^oi oo.i r£^..T»o : coum &vu&u 
,oooAv»r^ K'A\--*Ak' OO.i ndu..T.G : cnJLSa A^A >*a>&Av=a:i 
K$\xxxa£a .icu.i rc^k..T»ct : cnisa <k*»&A ^o-kiao&Avsa.i g) .tu K'ujgj 15 
•:• caia.10.1 icb »sa &u>&A ^Oioooiaea.1 rVvoOJ *«io\ >cnoov»rV 

rcA.1 ^AiC^ ^coAjx .^.era-.cYv-irC r^&v'i \ .1. h) ^-*S K'&O&K' 
.rf^ljan *JsaA vyK' .{.j*y&\& r<Ao a) «__ C* 3 "' p *-^° ^ a *°^ 20 
25-icu J Aao .K^-ArVa ^K'Ki*-.©! oo Aao k Wia^ji iuao 

a) C adds .°\nl. b) B adds JSO. c) B has this word on the margin. 
d) B K'cn-^OOH. e) A without the copula, f) A i<W— *oi! B margin »00 

K'AcoAt. g) B and C om. h) C om. i) B and C ^. . .Yl »♦ A adds 

wrongly ^>\£\&V=a r<Ao. k) C f^irj.n. 1) C r^^UJULai. 

r &'<tfc.l .<k»Ai»<< T*ka*x* b WA rCimua^ a Vdlxl ^acol*."! 
. "\- | :»* rdAsnsaa {fio&^&u c) ndaas»=> rt'.'i.ri*! {£ucu:i ^o&K' 
foynf** >*» ^to .rd*. >*. r&Xsar? Au-u v^** * «*S» m ^^ 

.K'Avilix.O K'&ujiL.^&OO r^foofoK' A*. d) ^».i i=»i<l 

rtli!»\ e) &\\$A rdLsW .T»- K'Jva^tix&sa JL&cp rc'^a^rC 


^.-W* c .rdiil rCioajA r^a-fa^J.i rdi_.'icu» .i*^o ° <^_l°k£cw 

b) .oJiaAo . k WiuitoSo po.To.l ^^jlIoAo* •rrfrilAre' To To"! ^^UoAo 

.po.irif.1 &i\.no A-lrC* ivwK' ^»ca*$v»r<' ^J2» r<b v fr i n io 
.rds^x-p^.i jaXrf vyr^l ^*i r^-jcji •:• re'enl'K'.i K'cna .tsnXo 28, 

.Sao .or^.1 .air* '. D) vyr^ ""W^vjjl-ot po.ia.i ^^ueoo •:• K'tSlL* 

a) C omits these words. For ^Ocn la>.l read ^OcolAa.T as in Ms. Mus. 
Brit, b) B and C add the copula, c) B KllnSfina. d) B adds AiVBI , 
C A^A£Q, but omits ^a. e) B «^A>1&1. f) C ^V ^ frso. g) C jJj*. 
h) C ^AoAo. i) B K'AvuufcS'i, A rCAuju»'£v2i ! k) C omits these words. 
]) This is the reading of B and Journal Asiat. 1875, p. 176. A without a. 
m) B <<&Vftfc*Sl. n) C om. 

^cnuourco .^.Ji-Sac^ksa t^AvjJl^. rdxso n£j_xA Jci-s 

20 .KLaSU K*&u!lx. Kill. | ^9 AiAa cdlaA Jt-i=> reluct .& .^ ..1 

.-jcn*&v»r<'Q fJlLsa&vjLSa K'&cL&flas cKA&o ,^oj ouJupCo 

(!)^_ocra"ir.Tflo QJcna .^*£ri&a pica's, ^Acn ^.i ^»ocn .A .^osn ..a 

.o ■:■ j3 .vy& .^ .Jk. b) .jj .en' .k* :^»cnina-ga.i rf,on\'\^ <V\<\a\ 5 

.A .^aifl ..=> •:• ^ .b\ .^ .s ->i : Jt, .^ .Qo .* •:• .A ... 

25 ^.COfiQ^CV^ .K'&G&K'n rf.a, \\ \ c W.n , Sk.TM 1 K'i.'WO CUCO 

3icV\cx£U | rCcVin^ck&ri »oco ^Qfi^tq oAk'.i >cti=j .r<LxS>3.Ti» ^Sp 10 
rdtio^ r<&cLU A.^. K'ocn .nOa l&iSfl . e) ^»crinqoa3 r^OVvNy* 
27, l.T^pre' .0t.\ u rC'in.SaA r<^C\l* r^OCO mat ^3 KlA.ia .^•oa=s.i 
^v=>Xj_do^^t<' r^lr^ . f W2ki-X.ja ..n.%^ .^Stcorf .i-X.c\ .tacn 

.cKx=3 cb-icKJp (fol. 2 b) cHjsa-Ajaochchr^cv .k'cK^jvmK' k'^oA^k'.i is 
5 k!cl£Cq f^** r^n nojj .r^^CV.Skjao ^x ora.n <V33 j »cr>ctcK» rc*:i 
>saz=jo k*\t\ h) .T*n cVin^-w ,cnach*t<\i : Asa^ ^o . e) .«Ar£t 

Ax. ,1) ^_»eni.u».'i f<X_.'ix» m) .jju4fo-*-3 rc*n iT«\.l rdix.K' .cbicK=s20 
>cn=j .K'i&fio yjojo' re&A ^ocn\:wr> ^xfWk^ftsg Kiiatcno .rd&ol* 

a J A adds ^xA 00 . b) B in inverted order, c) K'lnft'W . d) Wanting 
in C. e) A and C. ^cq'in'VW. f) A omits, g) B K'* KJaSKSI ^. C 
K* p3 chn°r*l ^.SO.l. h) B and C Jt,i=J. i) C without yud h . k) C {SfJ.t. 

1) B and G without dalat h . m) C adds dalat h ! n) C ^ca^gOO*. 

.rda'irc'a ."W-JjAcA* .rc**nOOAo .Kii^soo .r£ea\*x.a .KLiJcOAa 
t n "toon r^^d^K'l ^ocaA cKjA .^A ^j_^_».t» r<A:i rfj'i-MK'a 20 
sck^art* .^acoA ^schActeai rdlii c*vi=i (fol. 2a,) rC'^ox.o.jjcsA 
.^.CTr.cK.rC'.t vyK* cVunC^ich ^UrC r^in2o\o ^OcojOxlrj ^is^ 
K'&GchrC' A_2». K'V-oO.l ^OJSl-i-fla-1.1 b) CV-n-JcKa>r<' r^.icn A_^.C\ 
.r^.iiM ^sj c) QOLfia*kcnWo r^cWcujL»ichchsoA .oop ^ar.iso.1 
vycC* reiArC .ch^r^^icS r^iriiol ^nUT'a r*A r^jan A^.c\ 26, 1 

lO.K'ptl^no p^i»\aA ^33 ok* d WchaJC*Ax.:i?) ^ or^ .r*^3~ja=>:i 
^.ifio^. ^»»(^ rdjUicxflo K'i^Jao.i Ai^co f) ^ ^re'eWocWrc'© 
..* .A, .jj .\ .0 en .3 ..^ ..=» .r? ^»coi."U» cuodo .^^cWicWa 

.A\ .jl .i .j3 . — .A -^- .00 .^J .)as>3 .A .va 5 
. ^ " «* < rducAi cdtcl^-o rCeWi^^ i~p ^n h) ^cm») 

i5r<ixA cW^sas '^.caisaa ..x. ..*> .en .rC* .a^irC ^tcn«£urCo 
^•cnisaa .ja ..& ..^ b cV\\cV\ ^»erx»cK»rc'c\ . ^ftlsaovxJSa r<lxw >snx=>c\ 
^>cV\'-icV\ ^ k cfx>eK»t< , . ^n«M r£sac\& vy&i&o r£lA r^lx. *& 1 10 

.K'ckklo'iaLS) ^/iocVcaa ..h«M rdwa-i pa^. iairC'o .A .cfi.»cK»r<'c\ 

20 .onsaxi ^AKicKsa.-i r^Lta^ .^.caa cuaizsaA .xJrC nc^isn AA^.»i 15 

rdJuLo cc*i t\ j-in rc'.iwo \ jc .— oo .a f) .^Acn ^ax.cH.rc'a 

a) A om. b) C jaJchUOpC*. c) B Calk coAlo. d) B rC # cV\CU»lVliO 

e) B and C without the copula, f) C om. g) B has this word twice, h) B adds 
the copula, i) B without the copula, and with following **.l. k) A O *» C .» 09 
1) C r£xu m) B jjl>cK&.1. 

^io^t .s&\&s>a\ ^uirsa r^»iT*w ^.cue* ^.j-sa.i r<lui A^. a) 
5r£so~.i rClS^Aa&i^oa rC.IWj >V»1 .ii-iv.i rcLicuoo rtDeoso 

AK'.t f) ^iJco ^-.oa-Av.K' "W&viis Stasia d W&ei&P^ rds^o 

Kls^vdkS r^cnioK' jftn^ r^Ojjaa.i vyK* r£*=nocni x»^0 
.^»£A£\ KI^.sl^K' .v*^o .&xl£io f*'iaa±. ^W-LLsajq^.i 
15 .^i&'i&a ^ ae s ajj r<io."UCD .t*^o : &vc<\ ^ȣu& | pdisn'iK' .i>^a 10 
r ii30 b) ^ra£\i ^ur^>i^ d) neiW5sa*» ^Aco ^ b) ."Ui .tu .LkG 

A = Ms. Sachau 306. B = Ms. Sachau 5. C = Ms. Sachau 216. 
a) B has the following introduction: rticolrc' Klxi^wOa\0 ruu) A%. 

.^uaL*^j.t rd^Aa&i^.isa rdAiV t isa.i ocn r^nxsoo rdUicuao ^*.i 
yixs c .^ASir^ .^.i.T^. »j=a .cms* t<1^=j.i dot &cd c^i^K* 
> ni\*arw i\a (!) K$v* nfi&flo .a£\asa\ ^uixsa K'cralre'a »^» 
••.Klna-.i r ^A oAi^ytsq rd^ Onflow rC k^aAi-^ ii^o cneaxo.i 
•»^^.Ot i=» ^=>i.l rcli'UiK' K'iajSOO b) B and C om. c) B and C A*.. 
d) A om. e) A adds the copula, f) B and C *jAgd. g) A 1 in place of O. 
h) A adds cnJL».V i) B and C without the copula. 


, irda& A*, .su^h K'if.ioo rdkLrtA (Ms. Sachau 5, fol. 9 b.) 
piaii rc'irxAiasa.T^a *. K'&v-^il r6 ttt.\' , ,^ ^»i£u KlA 

.vJu.i f<xJL» rdLW .rfi^isai rdlsjafosa rtiaA>H=» 'T^Acw 




Ms. Mus. Britt.) oni4\cu=> vusxuujfia rtfouxsia voalx. AkIx. 
neA<-2aa ct»$Uk-x.:i K'Mne' vv[i]Wsaino (add. 25876, fol. 2b. 

A. «v.. ft.^rt ^> < -ai T,i.i ^xLrcA &Ak&\fi9crti .vvt^oj A^. r<,vsA 

\ V 


&u*k[a]r^ . , n i^rgsaH^ >=a'is=» vA (!) ^n*' •r>oiv[>n<'].i .&i&aL=>a 

&v»x&x.r*':i Ajl&sqo .r< .i*- v\i\\^ »\soax. £p Aua k aaL&r<'i5 
^aA-.K' r*&* n i fin «\ -> .sAuxdaA rdJr^ K'i-XJSa .AAo K'.x.neLaJ 

ni Ms. Mus. Britt. cn^Vt&USa.l. 

r<l&«ian> t^Wraew ^ict&t 

.m\ a 

t!i»K' Ax. 
. A-cpdtdtcL^ is cu&uiaaa cjc\n>» .ii^»i r<*a.ia rtl&usa 

t<bJbn &uu.isa r^Ausi f^&\x»:i3o »*\is &u^*sas